Constitutional Foundations (Classical Rebublicanism (British Radical Whigs…
150 Years of Colonial History/Culture
first governing document of the Plymouth colony
written by the men that were aboard the Mayflower
first permanent British settlement in America
Jamestown is where the British empire begins
disease famine and Native America conflicts caused Jamestown to almost fail
Tobacco became a very valuable export for Jamestown
colonial life in the 1700's
Had to pay heavy taxes because of the French and Indian war
the Townshend Acts imposed duties on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea imported into the colonies
Stamp Act- tax on printed media in the colonies
tea tax- tax on the teas that the colonists liked to drink
angered the colonists and lead to the Boston tea party
Boston tea party was the dumping of the British tea that was imported into the Boston harbor
Intolerable acts were imposed after the Boston tea party to punish the colonists for the dumping of the tea
British government wrote blank check in order to win the French and Indian war
Quartering act was passed forcing colonists to provide housing and food for the British soldiers
The heavy taxes imposed on the colonist put a strain on the relationship with the British and caused the colonists to act out
would tar and feather the tax collectors that came into the colonies
the taxes and acts lead to the start of the American Revolution
Sugar Act- tax on sugar that was imported into the colonies
Boston Massacre- the shooting of colonists by the British soldiers on the streets of Boston
colonists were throwing rocks and stones at the British soldiers
the murder of the protesters stirring up the colonists and created strain in the relationship between the colonists and the British empire
Classical Republicanism is a theory that the best kind of society is one that promotes the common welfare instead of the interests of only one class of citizens.
Citizens must be reared and taught to be virtuous by moral education based on a civic religion.
Citizens were expected to participate fully in their government to promote the common welfare
Small, Uniform Communities
A small community is necessary if people are to know and care for each other and their common welfare.
The Roman Republic was thought to be one of the best examples of classical republicanism because they believed citizens were supposed to work cooperatively to achieve the common welfare rather than their own personal or selfish interest.
British Radical Whigs
formulated a society in which the government's responsibility was limited to maintaining security and, avoiding at all costs, infringing on any citizen's life, liberty, or property.
The Social Contract
Government should protect life, liberty, and property and never do anything to threaten them or take them away.
The bloodless overthrow of a monarch with absolute power resulted in Parliament's increased ability to check the authority of the king.
set forth a Bill of Rights, which guaranteed the protection of a variety of individual rights, such as trial by jury and religious freedom
Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain.
First modern attempt to form a society and government based on republican ideals
Second Treatise of Government
Written at the the time of the Glorious Revolution
Overthrew King James II
Sovereignty in the hands of the people
Government must serve the people
People have right to dissolve government
government has no sovereignty of its own
"Life, Liberty, and Property"
People are equal and invested with natural rights
People trade their rights to enter society
Government's job is to protect liberties of the people
Believes in God-given rights
"Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness"
Changed property to pursuit of happiness because the founding fathers did not believe every man should be able to own property
Plagiarized from John Locke
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Articles of Confederation
Bill of Rights
The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
Amendment 1: U.S. citizens have freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Amendment 2: U.S. citizens have the right to keep and bear arms, or own guns.
Amendment 3: The government may not force U.S. citizens to shelter soldiers in their homes.
Amendment 4: U.S. citizens are protected from unreasonable searches of a person's property.
Amendment 5: The government may not force U.S. citizens to testify against themselves in court.
Amendment 6: U.S. citizens have the right to a fair and speedy trial.
Amendment 7: U.S. citizens have the right to a trial by jury.
Amendment 8: U.S. citizens are protected from cruel and unusual punishment.
Amendment 9: U.S. citizens may have rights that are not listed in the Constitution.
Amendment 10: Powers not given to the federal government by the U.S. Constitution belong to the state or to the people
Series of essays that defended the Constitution and tried to reassure Americans that the states would not be overpowered by the federal government.
Authors: Jay, Hamilton, Madison
Great (Conneticut) Compromise
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators
First Constitution. A loose confederation of independent states that gave limited powers to a central government.
Declaration of Indepedence
Document stating the reasons the colonies declaring themselves free from English rule. Expanded on Locke's ideas
Washington announced the Declaration of Independence to the Continental Army in New York, in July 9,1776
the convention of United States statesmen who drafted the United States Constitution in 1787