iBOL- The International Barcode Of Life project (Nations involved…
iBOL- The International Barcode Of Life project
Who are they?
How does it work?
DNA barcoding is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species.
system of species identification and discovery using a short section of DNA from a standardized region of the genome. That DNA sequence can be used to identify different species, in the same way a supermarket scanner uses the familiar black stripes of the UPC barcode to identify your purchases.
The gene region that is being used for almost all animal groups, a 648 base-pair region in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 gene ("CO1")
proving highly effective in identifying birds, butterflies, fish, flies and many other animal groups
The advantage of using COI is that it is short enough to be sequenced quickly and cheaply yet long enough to identify variations among species.
The COI barcode is not effective for identifying plants because it evolves too slowly, but two gene regions in the chloroplast, matK and rbcL, have been approved as the barcode regions for land plants.
How does it happen?
Species identification using DNA barcodes starts with the specimen. Barcoding projects obtain specimens from a variety of sources. Some are collected in the field, others come from the vast collections housed in natural history museums, zoos, botanical gardens and seed banks
In the laboratory, technicians use a tiny piece of tissue from the specimen to extract its DNA
The barcode region is isolated, replicated using PCR amplification and then sequenced
The sequence is represented by CATG
Once the barcode sequence has been obtained, it is placed in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) database - a reference library of DNA barcodes that can be used to assign identities to unknown specimens.
What species have been identified?
Recent news/current projects
Formicidae Barcode of Life
12,000 Ant species
All Birds Barcoding Initiative
Collected DNA barcodes from five or more individuals of all of the approximately 10,000 bird species
Trichoptera Barcode of Life
A long-term project to barcode the world's approximately 13,000 species of caddisflies
Fish Barcode of Life Initiative
Campaign to barcode all the species of fish
Lepidoptera Barcode of Life
Aims to barcode all the species of butterfly and moth, with separate regional campaigns in Australia and the US
The Mammal Barcode of Life
Part of a larger effort aiming to encompass all vertebrates, this one just aims to barcode all mammals
Mosquito Barcoding Initiative
The MBI plans to barcode at least five specimens from 80% of the 3,200 known mosquito species. Disease-bearing species and their closest relatives are the priority.
Marine Barcode of Life
Aims to barcode the worlds oceans
Polar Barcode of Life campaign
Co-ordinates efforts in Antarctica and the Arctic, on both land and sea
Countries that join are known as nodes
What nodes do
Lobby for funding for DNA barcoding
Obtain funds for barcoding facilities
Identify national priorities
Central- support the facilities to share information with all nations involved
National- Focus on collecting and identifying specimens from their own countries
Papua New Guinea
Regional- maintain core sequencing facilities