Aims and results of policies
Economic policies aim and impact
First five year plan in which Mao focused on the production of agriculture.
Great Leap Forward. Aims: Ideological foreign policy. Impact: China's great famine, lack of opposition, and Mao's suppression of dissent.
Political policies aim and impact
Three Anti campaign was targeted at members of the communist party who were apart of corruption, waste, and bureaucracy. First Five Year Plan was when Mao focused on agriculture. Second Five Year Plan in which Mao focused on heavy industrialization.
Cultural policies aim and impact
The Cultural Revolution was when the peasants and workers were given more opportunities but intellectuals were considered dangerous. Schools were shut down by Red Guards and people with "special privileges" were executed or sent away.
Social policies aim and impact
Marriage Reform law of 1950 in which women were granted more freedom in their choice of marriage. Five Anti campaign which was targeted towards the capitalist class for bribery, theft of state property, tax evasion, cheating on government t contracts, and stealing state economic information. Hundred Flowers campaign gave the people to have a freedom of speech and share their opinion but they were limited in many cases when it came to Mao directly and his party. The Anti-rightist campaign was a result of the Hundred Flowers campaign and caused to eliminate those who favored capitalism.
Impact of policies on women and minorities
Mao created the Marriage Reform Law of 1950 in which women were granted freedom in making decisions for themselves. Mao carried our executions of landlords and 'rightists' towards minorities to show his power and strength.
Authoritarian control and extent to which it was achieved
Mao was strictly against anyone who spoke bad about him or his ideologies leading to executions or ways that were harmful to a person.
Consolidation and maintenance of power
Use of legal methods
Use of force
Mao getting to schoolchildren and changing their thought process so that they would go against anyone including their parents.
Everyone respected Mao whether it was out of self choice or because they were scared of him
Dissemination of propaganda
Convince the public and international opinion in favor of Mao's policies
Nature, extent, and treatment of opposition
Anyone who went against Mao was condemned, sent to farms to learn about what their mistakes were and to live with the lower class, or executed.
Success/Failure of foreign policy on the maintenance of power
Mao wanted to ensure that China was never dependent on any foreign power. Nixon's 1972 visit to the PRC was a great success and the USA's recognition of the PRC ultimately led to the two countries finally establishing full diplomatic relations with each other in 1979. The PRC finally came out of isolation and began to be recognized as an important member of the global marketplace.
Emergence of authoritarian states
Conditions in which authoritarian states emerge
In the 1894-95 Sino-Japanese War, Japan rapidly defeated China. China was facing increasing pressure for change, which was being rejected by the aristocracy who clung to the feudal structure of Chinese society. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916 China went into a period of anarchy dominated by its warlords. The period between 1916-1927 was known as the "Warlord Era", as China did not have an effective central government. .
Paris Peace Settlements and Their Impact on China
China had entered World War 1 in 1917 with the expectation that after the war the German sphere of influence in Shandong would be ending and the province would revert back to China. On May 4, 1919 thousands of students protested against the Treaty of Versailles. The May 4th Movement was the paving way for the emergence of the CPC.
With Russian Comintern support, the CPC was encouraged to form an alliance with the GMD in order to reduce foreign influence in China and eliminate warlord power.
China was economically weak around 1949 especially because inflation had spiraled out of control.
Methods used to establish authoritarian states
Jiang needed to take some form of action to demonstrate his claim to be leader of the GMD, so he decided to get rid of the communist. The roots of the Civil War were set. Mao had set himself up as an independent force with peasant mass support, a secure base, and a strong military force using guerrilla tactics against the GMD.