Lexington and Concord:
- Britan's general, Gage, would send out regiments of British soldiers quartered in Boston.
2.British troops would seize gunpowder.
- But the secret seize backfired. American spies leaked out the word, and they prepared for the fight.
Second Continental Congress:
- Agreed that a contenintal army would be created
- Still, in May of 1775 the majority of delegates were not seeking independence from Britain. Only radicals like John Adams were of this mindset.
- 1776 congress agreed to a formal declaration of independence.
Battle of Bunker Hill:
- On this hill, rebels would bombard the town and British ships in Boston Harbor.
- Major General William Howe, leading the British forces, decided instead chose to march his troops uphill
- Howe did win eventually, but his assumption that the Loyalists would rally behind him was simply wrong.
Declaration of Independence:
- On June 7, 1776, Richard Henery Lee introduced a resolution to the Congress that declared the thirteen colonies
- The declaration is divided into three main parts.
- on July 4, 1776, the colonies approved the document.
Battle of Trenton:
- General George Washington's army crossed the icy Delaware on Christmas Day 1776.
- Washington defeated a formidable garrison of Hessian mercenaries before withdrawing.
- Washington shifted his focus to planning another engagement, at Princeton.
- 1777-78 winter encampment of the Continental Army
- military camp 18 miles northwest of Philadelphia
- American Army survived a difficult winter
Battle of Saratoga:
- September 19th, British General John Burgoyne achieved a victory over American forces.
- Burgoyne again attacked the Americans at Bemis Heights, but was defeated.3. In the end, Burgoyne surrendered saratoga ten days later.
Battle of Yorktown :
- Victory by American Continental Army troops led by General George Washington and French Army.
- Sep 28, 1781 – Oct 19, 1781.
- force of 17,000 French and Continental troops.
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Social Classes (peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattoes, etc.). 1. Peninsulares are men born in Spain. Held highest officers. 2. Creoles are Spainiards born in Latin America. Officers in army, not in government. 3. Mesitizos are mixed European and Indian decent. 4. Mulattoes are mixed European and African decent.
1.best-known leader of the Haitian Revolution.
- His military and political acumen saved the gains of the first Black insurrection in November 1791.
- Born in May 20, 1743, died: April 7, 1803,
- French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution.
- He led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
- Born August 15, 1769, died: May 5, 1821,
- was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician.
2: Born: February 15, 1564,
Died: January 8, 1642.
3: Discovered: Callisto, Ganymede, Europa, Io, Rings of Saturn
Copernicus: 1: Renaissance mathematician and astronomer . 2: Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.
Descartes: 1: French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. 2: Descartes thought that the Scholastics’ method was prone to doubt given their reliance on sensation as the source for all knowledge
Kepler: 1: Best known for his laws of planetary motion. 2: Also known for Kepler conjecture,.
Newton: 1: Newton designed and constructed a reflecting telescope in 1668. 2: studied gravitation and its effects on the orbits of planets, coming up with the idea of an ellipse.
Brahe: 1: He is known for his Tychonic system. 2: wrote a book named Astronomiae Instauratae Progymnasmata
Harvey: 1: Describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation. 2: Published his completed treatise on the circulation of the blood, the De Motu Cordis.
Inventions: 1: Steam engines. They power the first trains.2: Cotton Gin. Easier to separate cotton seeds from cotton fiber. 3: Factories. Places that mass manufactured products.
Why England?: All of these factors came together in the late 18th century to create the unique conditions in England that culminated in the first-ever Industrial Revolution: The Agricultural Revolution discussed earlier resulted in increased food production and increased population in England first.