consolidation and maintenance of power
use of force: many members of the party who disagreed or criticized with Mao committed suicide or were executed and millions of people were sent to the countryside to learn from the peasants or were sent to labor camps. The Anti-rightist movement taught that criticism of the party and Mao was not tolerated.
charismatic leadership: Mao made himself very familiar with the people and his cultural revolution made every young people praise him as a god which gave him control since the young people started rebelling against their parents and professional official.
use of legal methods: Mao made himself chairman of most parts of the government, He also started a campaign to allow criticism, when that happened, the anti-rightist movement was created to get rid of those who spoke against the government. It was contradicting but legal.
dissemination of propaganda: Mao's cult of domesticity allowed him to get back in power after he had stepped down.The party used him as a figure now and that was a mistake because he was able to convince the people of China to put him back in power and it did happen after the cultural revolution
Nature, extent and treatment of opposition
Extent: Mao did not have much opposition as he was very popular among the party and the people. Although his opposition within the party began when the failures of the great leap forward started to be very obvious. Mao was not paranoid so much about whether he had opposition. For him, his main enemies were intellectuals, those who had the brains to speak up against him.
Treatment : with those who disagreed with Mao, they were considered enemies of socialism and were sent to camps or to countryside.
Nature: A split began within the CPC as a result of the failures of the GLF . Peng Dehuai , one of Mao's longest stading supporters, criticised Mao's GLF and the economic failures of his policies. This eventually resulted in Mao stepping down as head of state in 1959. In terms of civilians, the intellectuals or educated people were considered his enemies.
The impact of the success and failure of foreign policy on the maintenance of power
Impact of successes: When Mao was able to fight off the U.N. and U.S. forces in the Korean war, he won major respect both internally and externally, he was seen as a hero for the Chinese people and he had now secured his power and popularity in China. The successful establishment of Sino- American relations led to the start of China being recognized by other world powers, Mao gained a position in the U.N. which made him now more powerful and influential than the USSR.
Impact of failures: The failure of a stable and close diplomatic relations between the USSR and China, made China more isolated from the rest of the globe because while the soviet was already making relations with the U.S. , Mao just had the soviet as an ally. Eventually there was actual fighting between the Soviet and China, and this led to Mao start seeking for a relation with the U.S. , which was shocking to everyone!
Emergence of authoritarian states
Conditions in which authoritarian state emerged
social division: the majority of the population were peasants and the rest were intellectual, which included students, teachers, etc. This allowed Mao to gain the support of the peasants by advocating for them and when he finally had the support he would take total power.
impact of war: losses in war against Japan made China suffer and have a hard time, after the war with Japan ended, chinese just wanted consolidation and peace, and the only one that was fit to do that was Mao. Jiang had lost a lot of support due to his lack of fighting for China in the sino-japanes war.
economic factors: China was in a bad economic state, the Open door policy allowed many spheres of influence in China which took away their pride. Such influence formed an anti-western attitude in Mao and the rest of china making Mao able to take full control of China to make China independent from other countries.
weakness of political system: There was a "de facto" government in Beijing but it had no form of enforcement because warlords claimed their own regions. This allowed an authoritarian state to emerge easily. because there wasn't really a government.
Methods used to establish authoritarian states
ideology: like the soviet's communist ideology, it was believed that a dictatorship was needed in order for people to adapt to a communist state. Also he promised to share land among peasants since shared land was part of communism and it allowed him to take control of the country.
the use of force: Mao used force to establish an authoritarian state by forcing those who opposed his ideologies transform into revolutionaries by sending them to the countryside to learn from the peasants. He also purged them after basically allowing criticism, which silenced people who opposed his government.
the role of leaders: Mao was involved in almost every part of the government so he was able to control every aspect of the government. Mao was still the chairman of the NPC, the central committee and the Politburo
propaganda: there was propaganda to depict Mao as a hero that would save the Chinese people, this allowed Mao to rise in total power. Propaganda posters would make portray Chinese people happy with Mao's policies.
persuasion and coercion: One of Mao's first policies was keeping the promises he made during the civil war like the marriage reform which appealed to people who didn't want an arranged marriage (mostly women) this gave Mao a lot of support and approval of his authoritarian state.
Aims and results of policies
the impact of policies on women and minorities
authoritarian control and the extent to which it was achieved:There was a strong centralized government controlled mainly by Mao. But to an extent Mao didn't have total power because if he did the party wouldn't have been able to make him step down from head of the state (1959) due to the failures of his GLF. He needed to gain the support of the younger population in order to get back in power. He wasn't as aggressive as Stalin was. He didn't have to implement so much fear in order for the Chinese to be loyal to the party, he was very persuasive and would gain the support of the masses. So it could be said that Mao didn't need to be extreme to establish an authoritarian state in China.
aims and impact of domestic economic,political, cultural and social policies
'Five Antis Movements":
were directed against the party memebers, government officials, and business owners. Targetedcheating on goverment constracts, stealing state economic information, tax evasion, etc.
The Hundred Flowers Campaign:
Mao wanted to ensure that freedom of expression was inlvolved and to allow criticism that were supposed to bring improvements and would move China forwards. This actually led to the Anti-Rightist Movement led by Deng Xiaoping.
Agrarian Reform Law
1950: Redistribution of all the land in China. This law was a way in which Mao succeeded in eliminating a section of the chinese population that would oppose Mao.
The First Five Year Plan:
Aims were to double the amount of industrial output and complete a 'socialist transformation' of China as quickly as possible. By Dec.25 the results were impressive as industrialization was becoming a reality.
Marriage Reform law of 1950
: had a great effect on the people of China mostly women. This was becasue both genders were finally equal and arranged marriage wasn't an option because both had to agree to get married. Thus leading to a huge inscrease in the support of women to Mao.