3. Aims and Results of policies
Aims and impact of economic policies
The Great Leap Forward
Mao wanted to catch up to Great Britain industrially within 15 years.
People were organized into communes to complete large scale projects (dams, bridges, railroads, etc)
People were forced to work shift after shift with little rest and were encouraged to rid themselves of improper, anti-communist thoughts.Massive corruption and poor management of the communes.
While the policy focused on industry-agriculture was ignored. Droughts and floods caused one of the largest famines in history.
Many sources site 14-20 million deaths, others 23-40 million deaths due to starvation.
The government does not acknowledge any failure and by 1961 simply abandons the communes.
Aims and impact of social policies
: When Mao came to power in 1949, only 30% of the population was literate.
Mao hated those he considered “intellectual elites”, but something had to be done to increase literacy.
Mao believed in hands-on training, use of the Little Red Book in terms of a text.
Students could be sent to the Soviet Union for higher education.
Overall, Mao did little to improve either education or healthcare significantly.
Aims and impact of cultural policies
The Cultural Revolution
While most people were focused on fixing China’s economy, Mao was concerned that people were only interested in making money.
He felt the spirit of the revolution was threatened.
Modern China needed a cultural revolution to get rid of the “olds”: old ideas, old culture, old customs and old habits.
This is the time period when the Red Guard is given full reign to implement these policies.
By 1969, even Mao recognized the excesses of the Red Guards and attempted to pull them back.
The impact of policies on women and minorities:
Women were seen as valuable and equal members of Chinese society.
Women and families were greatly affected by the policies of the Cultural Revolution.
Anyone who wasn’t Han Chinese was considered a minority, which meant about 55 groups were minorities. (Mongols, Tibetans, Muslims)
All Chinese people, ultimately could be and were targets.
Mao despised the intellectual and upper classes
Is responsible for the deaths of 78 million people
To what extent was Mao able to achieve an authoritarian state?
Mao gained total authoritarian control from 1949 onward.
Mao, the Communist Party (CCP) and the Red Guard controlled all aspects of people’s lives.
The Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution were both disastrous policies that resulted in chaos and the death of millions.
Mao’s policies did little to improve the economy or the lives of the Chinese people.
In the early 1970’s, Mao became ill and his wife, Jiang Qing takes power.
Mao died in 1976 and his wife joined with 3 others in what will be known as The Gang of 4.
By 1979, Deng Xiaoping will gain control of the Communist Party. Mao is still held in high regard.
2. Consolidation and Maintenance of Mao's power
Nature, extent and treatment of opposition:
Those who opposed against Mao were either attacked by the peasant, commit suicide, or were sent to country side. Mao encouraged all peasant to attack those against the revolution.
The impact of the success and/ or failure of foreign policy on the maintenance of power:
Sino-Soviet Relations (1953-1961): Their relation ship reached their lowest point in 1939. Tension occur around the border almost leading to a nuclear war. A consequence is that their was tension between the PRC and the USA.
Sino- Soviet Relations (1953-1961): Declared by Nixon the PRC is replacing Taiwan as a permanent member of the UN security Council. As a result of this foreign affair China achieved to raise China’s influential Status, faced down the USSR and became a nuclear power
The Korean War (1950-1953) : The north allied with china while south Korea aligned with America. Both side fought until a stalemate as a result China had lost more than 1 billion $. This also shows that China has grown in power and can almost defeat a Western power.
Use of legal methods:
Charismatic Leadership :crown:
1966 Cult of Mao grew into millions full with young students. Red guards looked at Mao like a god like figure and rebelled for Mao's belief.m
Dissemination of propaganda
Cultural revolution 1966 launched by Jiang who wanted to change cultural production which were criticizing the government. Jiang wanted to get rid of the old four which were Old customs, old habits, old culture, old thinking. This also included getting rid of older people who were already spoiled with old ways.
The cultural revolution with the support of the red guards who vandalized China by writing on wall posters and attack private proptery. They followed the motto " to rebel is justified" in order to create the cult of Mao.
Use of Force:
Agrarian reform Law: June 1950 had the aims to lead the peasants to succeed in the elimination of landlords. In the Struggle Meeting campaign, thousands of landlords were forced to admit their crimes against the pedantry. Some were beaten to death while other committed suicide.
Anit-Rightist Movement: July 1957 Led by Deng Xiaoping used the methods of struggle meeting and declared hundred of thousands of intellectuals as rightists. Millions of people were sent to the countryside to learn from the peasant or sent to labor camps. Taught China that criticism of the party was not allowed.
1. Emergence of Mao's authoritarian state
Conditions in which Mao's authoritarian state emerged
: Prior to 1911, the Emperor controlled every aspect of the economy and lived a lavish life, while the people of China suffered through incredibly poor conditions.
Other nations, especially, Great Britain were interested in opening up China for colonization and trade.
China was very much isolated from the rest of the “modern” world-Great Britain finally found a way by getting much of the population addicted to opium.
China will essentially be at war with various groups or other countries from 1911-1949 (when Mao comes to power).
Impact Of War
: In 1911, soldiers rebelled against the last dynasty (the Machu Dynasty)
Dr. Sun Yat-sen attempts to take power and Westernize China.
1911-1927 are known as the years of the Warlord Period, as military generals fight to control the provinces (violence all across the countryside)
By 1927, General Jiang Kai-shek defeated most of the other warlords and takes power.
He emerges as the leader of the Kuomintang
: Powerful dynasties had ruled China for thousands of years under the Mandate of Heaven.
1644-1911 the Manchu or (Qing) Dynasty would be the last.
90% of the population were peasants-the wealth gap was massive. You were either the emperor, at court or were mostly likely a poor country peasant
Weakness of political system:
There really was no political system aside from the Emperor prior to 1911.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen attempted to form a modern democracy based on Western ideals and principles in 1911, but was unsuccessful.
General Jiang Kai-shek will take power in 1927 after the Warlord Period. His rule is considered a dictatorship filled with corruption.
Methods used to establish Mao's authoritarian state
: Mao believed the classic, left-wing, communist ideology.
Very much believed in economic and social equality for the masses. ( China has a huge population, 90% of which were incredibly poor). Mao also believed that the NP and Jiang Kai-shek were the wrong leaders for China and did all he could to defeat these NP forces. Eventually, the Warlord Period will end when only two powerful groups and leaders remained-Mao and the Communist. Jiang Kai-shek and the NP. This will begin the Civil War period of fighting.
The Role of leaders:
Mao Zedong became commander of the Communist Party rebel forces. At one point they were surrounded by the NP forces-Mao lead 86,000 supporters over 6,000 miles of mountains.This becomes known as the Long March
8,000 people survived the “march”.This event signals Mao’s rise to power and leadership. The Long March inspires many people to join the Communist Party because of the heroism of the journey
Persuasion and Coercion
: During the chaos of the Warlord Period, the Communist Party (CCP) is formed. This was a revolutionary group that planned to end social and economic inequality, especially for the peasants. As the communist rebels conquered territory, they gained the support of the peasants by redistributing that land to the poor.Remember that 90% of the population were peasants-the Communist Party found a very receptive audience (not much persuasion and coercion was needed)
The use of force:
Mao did not have to use force against the people of China to join the Communist Party and army. They very much believed in his ideologies and were willing to fight with and for Mao. Mao did use force against the NP to defeat them and their leader Jiang Kai-shek. An odd truce will actually take place between Mao and Jiang from 1937-1945. They will unite in an “uneasy” alliance to defeat the Japanese. Once WWII was over and the Japanese were defeated, the Civil War will resume between the two.
Mao did not use much actual propaganda prior to 1949 as the country was involved in war of some sort.
There are some anti-Japanese posters that were produced during WWII, but not in massive quantities.
It is not until 1949 and after, when Mao is fully in power, that propaganda posters are heavily used.
Media was controlled and censored as will every aspect of life for the people of China.