Henry VIII Foreign Policy 1527-40
Henry VIII Foreign Policy 1527-40
1536: Renewal of fighting between France and the Holy Roman Empire/Spain
1538: Peace between France and Holy Roman Empire
1533: Henry begins break with Rome
1539: Fear of invasion in England as Pope attempts to unite Catholic powers in an anti-English Crusade
1532: Defensive alliance between England and France
1529: Peace of Cambrai between Francec and the Holy Roman Empire
1529: French defeated at Landriano
1527: England offers support to France against the Holy Roman Empire/Spain at the Treaty of Amiens
1527: Sack of Rome left Pope Clement VII a virtual prisoner of the emperor
1540: Henry marries Anne of Cleves; marriage quickly dissolves
Due to weak position, England forced to make anti-Imperial alliance with France (Treaty of Amiens 1527). Trade embargo with Burgundian islands led Charles to retaliate. Caused widespread unemployment and social issues in England.
Peace of Cambrai (France + HRE) meant Henry was unable to solve his marital issues by diplomatic means (logical, non-war means). Led to Henry blaming Wolsey and led to Wolsey's fall from power in 1529.
1532, fragile alliance between England and France was not very useful and barely put any pressure on the emperor.
1538 Henry's position was weakened due to Charles and Francis' Treaty of Nice (agreed to sever connections with England). Pope Paul III published bull saying English Catholics no longer had to obey ruler. Pope sent envoys to France and Scotland to rouse support for Catholic crusade against Henry.
Kildare (Gerald Fitzgerald, ninth Earl) was dismissed in 1534 leading to a major rebellion led by son, Thomas Fitzgerald Earl of Ossory. Expensive and difficult to suppress.
Attempts to refashion Irish government in 1534 to bring it more directly under English control failed: it required royal government through an English-Born deputy supported by a substantial military prescence (so Ireland increasingly drained the Crown's resources).
Con O'Neill and Manus O'Donnell (Gaelic lords) invaded the Pale (area of English control around Dublin) in 1539 and government did regain control by establishing Ireland as a separate Kingdom in 1541 (to try to pacify it). This imposed English law and created countries out of Gaelic lordship and in return Gaelic lords recieved peerage titles and Irish were entitled to same legal protections as English. But, government lacked resources to follow through reforms so no residual Irish loyalty to Crown. From 1534, relationship with Ireland was complex due to religious differences.
Francis sought a marriage alliance with his son Henry and Pope's niece, Catherine de Medici. Meant Henry had to solve Great Matter by breaking with Rome. No short term repercussions as Charles preoccupied with threat of Ottoman Turks to Christian Europe.
Pressure on Henry reduced in 1536 due to Catherine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn's deaths and the renewal of fighting between emperor and Francis I (reduced danger of England's isolated position.
Friendship between Charles and Francis broke down, leaving England in a much more secure position by 1540.
Foreign policy from 1527 was dominated largely by the 'King's Great Matter' and the need to protect previous actions. In 1527, England was still a minor power within Europe and had to make alliances due to its weak position. By 1540, England wasn't much more powerful but Henry was in a much more secure position due to the break down of Charles and Francis' peace.