BU2_TERM 2_PART 2_S(6-8) WHAT is the methodological repertoire for Urban…
BU2_TERM 2_PART 2_S(6-8)
is the methodological repertoire for Urban Design
PARTICIPATION AT CITY SCALE PLANNING
CHALLENGES FOR GOVERNMENTS
INSTITUTIONS,AGENCIES AND THE LIMITATIONS OF PARTICIPATORY APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT
T2.S6.R2_John Forester (2006)
MAKING PARTICIPATION WORK WHEN INTERESTS CONFLICT : MOVING FROM FACILITATING DIALOGUE AND MODERATING DEBATE TO MEDIATING NEGOTIATIONS
REFRAMING : ACKNOWLEDGING MUTUAL VULNERABILITY AND DEFINING COMMON CHALLENGES
LISTENING FOR MORE THAN WORDS : ANALYSING UNDERLYING INTERESTS
MEDIATING PARTICIPATION RATHER THAN MODERATING DEBATE
WORKING WITH ANGER : HARNESSING THE ENERGY IN ACRIMONY
Lessons for planners and managers facing the challenges and opportunities of public involvement
Recognize and work proactively to move beyond , community members's dissatisfactions with past government efforts
When stakeholders turn into mutual blaming and recrimination, planners can use indirect strategies to explore issues, enable learning and simultaneously build relationship
as parties often bring suspicions and vulnerabilities to community planning encounters such meetings may often benefit from using trained mediators.
Planning educators and practitioners should cultivate a broad repertoire of skills and strategies for planning in the face of conflict
Mediated participation requires deliberately recognizing the past and addressing future possibilities
Mediated participation techniques can
redirect conflict into joint inquiry
explore options rather than escalate demands
achieve practical ends that will serve diverse interest
THE ROLE OF PLANNING SCHOLAR: RESEARCH, CONFLICT AND SOCIAL CHANGE
knowledge production, conflict, research-design,roles, implication*
RESEARCH SUBJECT INTERFACE
Raymond Gold's model
illustrated that positionality of field-researcher ranges from
total involvement to total detachment
. Researcher both as 'scientist' or as 'person'. Gold invokes the concept of going native
But Gold couldn't anticipate
current trend of research in which scholars seek external funding to carry research for government or private sector
or form collobarative partnership with research subjects in co-production of knowledge. Contemporary scholars also benefit from their works on
production of research that affects on the practice.
5 ROLES OF PLANNING SCHOLARS
comment : many researcher may engage in multiple scholarly roles
independent from practitioner
aim to adress specific policy challeneg, focus on technical issues with policy implication, emphasize theoritical consideration or serve as sharp social critque.
action oriented with multiple objectives
similar to foucault's definition of 'Public intellectual
tends to see themselves as 'sketcher of plans', 'recipemaker' etc
communicating research results publicly is key mechanism through which social change is imagined to be achieved.
public presentation as 'the expert' of their field
research for planning or practice based research
examples : producing specific output research for government or NGO or private sector , Working in advisory role to provide strategic advice on policy implications of research.
researcher as 'independent outsider' or 'insider'
social impact and policy relevance are key focus
COMMUNITY BASED PLANNER
repositioning of researcher
bottom up approach to scholarship with different power-knowledge relationship
research done in partnership with 'community' who otherwise would be research subjects.
active participant of social movement
radical or insurgent planner
Insurgent planning practices (Miraftab,2009) is characterized as counter-hegemonic, transgressive and imaginative.
action oriented and transformational
oppostional type of practice intent on grasping control away from the powerful
IMPLICATIONS OF PLANNING SCHOLARS
(RE)DEFINING RESEARCH IMPACT ?
growing ambivalence and realization that research has done minimal impact on societal level
take roles within production of knwoledge towards policy relevance.
engaging as consultant, scholars can take action oriented approach not just in service of powerful but can also provide an interface to fulfill the broader definition of meaningful research impact.
working closely with key stakeholders or actors from early stage may help identify pressing issue as research question.
Networking outside academy
CONFLICT AND RESEARCH IMPACT
Conflict around end goals such as policies, resource allocation, or ideological issues.
Conflict around institutional strategies, tactics and obediences
Other potential areas of conflict (pressure from funding sources and restriction on publishing study findings)
CATALINA ORTIZ LECTURE
An effect & instruments of political strategies and social relations of power.
effect of strategies as it cannot be reduced to homogeneous, stable actor that exists prior to political action.
state as complex resultant of conflicting and contradictory governmental practices.
HOW DO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND OFFICIAL PLANS DEAL WITH CHALLENGES OF PARTICIPATORY PROCESS ?
WHICH TOOLS DO THEY HAVE ?
WHAT ARE THE MAIN CHALLENGES THEY ENCOUNTER IN DEALING WITH THE SCALE OF THE CITY ?
PLAN (McFarlene, 2011)
list of urban coordination tools which constitutes different forms of knowledge to make it measurable.
coordination of different forms of knowledge are coordinated and in the potential of that coordination to facilitate more socially just or indeed socially unjust forms of urbanism.
URBAN LAND REFORM ( Fernandes, 2007)
transformative project seeking autonomy of municipal government
democratic management of cities
Why local states need to engage in participatory urban plans ?
What are the key themes/issues that a strategic spatial plan should address ?
who needs to be included
how to involve different groups ?
COLLECTIVE MAPPING AND SPATIALLY BASED KNOWLEDGE
T2.S8.R3_Sandercock & Attili (2010)
DIGITAL ENTHOGRAPHY AS PLANNING PRAXIS
An Experiment with Film as Social Research, Community Engagement and Policy Dialogue
stories and storytelling as a 'post-positivist' paradigm of inquiry influenced by phenomology,ethnography and narrative analysis, along with visual methods in social research
mode of inquiry : form of meaning making, way of knowing and meanings of provoking public dialogue around planning and policy issues.
CASE OF FOGO ISLANDS
Collapse of local fishing economy
govt. proposed resettlement
fishing cooperative and a school were established in fogo shortly after films were produced and the community was not relocated.
everyone who were interviewer would have chance to see how their interview was used , at an early stage and if they were not happy , they could insist on being taken out.
result of student works was a series of digital narratives, mini films of microstories , based on in-depth interviews as well as archival and other research . The footage was then combined using specific editing and graphic software.
two stage editing process i.e, 'What is the story we want to tell ? What is the answer to our initial question : how do stranger become neighbours ?
EPISTEMOLOGICAL SHIFT IN 1970s
Friedmann outlined the crisis of knowing in which he talked about limitation of expert knowledge and advocated mutual learning
need both expanded language for planning and for ways for expanding the creative capacities of planners
need to acknowledge and use many other ways of knowing.
'story turn' in planning in response to epistemological crisis., that uses narratives in planning.
DIGITAL ETHNOGRAPHY AS PLANNING PRAXIS
self reflexive analytical practices aimed at portraying lives, stories, transgressing objectified urban representations and creatively expressing meaningful narratives.
an intepretive practice, aimed to make sense of pheomena in terms of meanings public bring to them.
This praxis is a very involving process in which researchers develop personal relationships with interveiwees , remaining close to them during the phases od data analysis, feedback and editing , and beyond, in the arenas of dissemination and subsequent action.
this existential reality invokves a series of important ethical issues and demands an acture self-relfexivity around relationships of power , including the power to narrate.
Reflexivity is at the heart of an ethical process
digital ethnographic approach requires an evolving and adaptive ethical awareness and practice: the willingness to cooperate with members of the community to find original and contextualised ways to build the research itself.
the research path that emerges in co-learning environment where researchers are led by community to discover them (denzin , 2003)
Collaborative mutuality of this approach favours situational ethics rooted in cooperative and contextualised relationship.
two ethnical dimensions to multimedia producers, they are
a political voice
issue of authorship and ownershsip.
extended dialogue needs to be around
What's in it for whose story is being told ?
What do they hope to get out of it ?
Will the project be designed in such a way as to ensure their needs are likely to be realized? What control will they have over how their interveiws are used ? How will they be consulted or involved thorughout the production and post-production process ? wiill authorship be shared? Will there be an ongoing relationship after production is finished?
Psychological empowerment experienced by locals as documentary allowed them to reflect upon themselves.
3 Shortcomings identified related to content of the film
The importance of embracing a situational ethics which enables to develop collaborative approach with those whose story we are telling.
need to pay close attention to the politics of voice, to ensure we are not speaking for others .
Significance of identifying desired audience and developing a plan of getting film to that audience.
keep control and copyright for one's material.
AGENCY OF MAPPING : SPECULATIONS, CRITIQUE AND INVENTION
Power of maps to reveal hidden purpose, facts realities that can not be seen through direct experience through various types of maps, and how the maps can be seen as a symbol of power and spatial hierarchy
cultural project creating and building the world as much as measuring and describing it .
instrumental and constructing and construing of lived space.
it's agency lies in neither reproduction nor imposition but rather in uncovering realities , previously unseen or unimagined.
Some simply reproduce what is already known but there can be more than tracing which can also actualise the potential
AGENCY OF MAPPING
A map is
not always neutral,
(A) which a project develops originate with what is selected and prioritized in the map.
(B) What is subsequently left aside or ignored ?
(C) How the chosen material is schematised, indexed and framed ?
(D) How the synthesis of the graphic field invokes semantic, symbolic and instrumental content.
Mapping is the most formative and creative act of any design process, firstly disclosing and then staging conditions for the emergence of new realities.
TYPES OF MAPS
Debord, Situationist theorist
Debord walked aimlessly around the streets and alleys of the city, turning here and there wherever the fancy took him. His maps located his own play and representation within the recessive nooks and crannies of everyday life.
a form of cognitive mapping than mimetic description of the cityscape.
when different layers are overlaid together, a stratified amalgam of relationship amongst parts appears.
Third thematic development of mapping in contemporary design practice and one related to the notions of performance mentioned above, has been projection of 'game-board' map structures.
rhizome connects any point to any other point.
it has neither beginning nor end, but always a middle (milieu) from which it grows and overspills, (constituting) linear multiplicities.
rhizome is acentered, non-hierarchial and continually expanding across multiple terrains.
CAN PARTICIPATORY MAPPING ACTIVATE SPATIAL AND POLITICAL PRACTICES ?
Mapping popular resistance and dwelling practices in Bogota eastern hills.
Mapping beyond means to enter into spatial knowledge
counteract hegemonic mapping as a critical practice with the potential to generate renewed capacities to aspire and act in spatially and socially embedded ways and to help create new avenues of grassroots engagement with contemporary urban policy and planning issues and conceptions.
break the exclusionary construction of space and reproduction of governing relationship that causes inequality
means to re-problematize process of knowledge production
SCALE & PARTICIPATORY MAPPING
Definition of Scale
(Nikiforovo & Kaiser,2008 )
socially constructed instruments of power
which embody and express the unequal interplay among different actors
Scale is not fixed, it is flexible. Different actors may invoke particular strategies to enroll allies, build relational power, and achieve specific political ends.
Scale is an integral part of strategies of empowerment and disempowerment (Kurtz 2003, Swyngedouw 2004)
SCALAR POLITICS (SCALE AND POWER)
links between discourse and practice that support official maps
in terms of scale of authority , the mapping workshop in Triangulo can be used as a means to bridge the distance between authorities and inhabitants bringing them under one roof, opening up dialogue and the possibility for negotiation.
focusing on scale in participatory praxis and acknowledging its performative potential may in effect play role in transfroming scalar relations.
' scale is the not prime object of contention, but rather specific processes and institutionalised practices that are differentially scaled' (MacKinnon,2010) what he refers 'scalar politics'
Adhering to MacKinon's insight, Bogota mapping initiative sought to unravel the 'scalar politics' at play, by exploring the links between the discourses and scalar practices underpinning official maps.
Before engaging with actual drawing of a new map, we started reading how Triangulo had been mapped by local and national authorities , seeking to understand how the eastern hills have been percieved and concieved in planning circles.
in 10 year Master plan of City (POT), it depicts the area as lying in planned ecological corridor, a buffer zone against further urban sprawl that seeks to safeguard the forested hills. Likewise, most official documents shows large green patch area adjacent to the city omitting reference to any human settlement.
on the other hand , a sequence of maps produced by authorities showed that area considered to be low to medium risk in 2006 as zone of unmitigable risk in 2011. Ironically, this map excludes from such label an adjacent patch of land, taken over by developers in 2007, which saw excavation of the hills for the construction of 6-storey buildings , triggering recurrent landslides.
There was gap between 'scale of framing' and 'scale of regulation'.
'Scale of framing' the scale at which a problem is experienced and framed.
'Scale of regulation' the scale identified for the adminstration of landscapes (Towers 2000)
arguing that implementation would fail, as the buffer zone would inevitably be encroached by newcomers, they used the maps and their own notion of what an ecobarrio is to reframe their dwelling practices as a potential strategy that could simulataneously mitigate risk and safeguard ecological infrastructure of the city.
the strategies adopted through the mapping workshop can also be understood through what smith (2004) refers as 'scale jumping' and 'scale bending' in order to resist the discursive conceptualisation of the locals as secondary.
workshop raised awareness of city-wide trends and discourses and through the critical readings of maps, enabled the analysis of scalar politics and its reconfiguration as a strategy itself.
EXAMPLE : Putting
'on the map'
Participatory mapping took place in 2012 in 4 neighbourhoods in Triangulo
eviction and relocation was done by municipal resettlement programme in 2006
one of neighbourhood , Corinto was demolished in 2011.
Mapping was seen as a means to understand local dwelling practices, providing counter arguments against official maps of the areas and open dialogue with the very institution who produced those maps
Day one - Mapping as a means to understand local dwellers practices that make dwelling in the slopes possible.
Day two : sessions to locate this practice from aerial photo, through a full day walk
Day three : analysing what map produced and identifying potential strategies for risk reduction, social cohesion and collective action.
importance of addressing the notion of participation in knowledge production as continuum
local residents had to make conscious decision about : What to map, how to map, who with and for what purpose.
Mapping in different scalers allowed community to find their way across different adminstrative jurisdictions in which their map was to fight further battles.
URBAN DESIGN AS RESISTANCE AND POLITICAL ACTIVISM
NEIGHBOURHOOD ACTIVISM AMONG HOMEOWNERS AS A POLITICS OF SPACE
Space includes both
concrete material surroundings
abstract ideas, thoughts, and feelings about those surroundings
Saunder's perception of homeowner from distinct class to a political interest group.
Tenureship divisions can form a basis of property class formation
Despite their objective material agenda , homeowners mobilize according to their subjectivity percieved agenda , a well defined spatial vision of what neighbourhood should be like.
approaches homeowners activism on the same frame what homeowners do
class approach to conceive home owner's agenda
spatial approach to offer new way to understand why homeowners act on their agenda
Understanding of homeownership via spatial approach can make visible understanding on the interconnection role by played by class, race, gender, nature and the like.
social and spatial understanding should go hand in hand.
COPRODUCING COMMONS-BASED RESILIENCE : LESSONS FROM R-URBAN
paper attempts to understand the processes and challenges within the implementation of the participatory strategy of civic resistance through network of urban commons.
CO-PRODUCTION OF RESILIENCE
inputs used in production are not from same source (ostrom)
coproduction with resilience and commons, stressing the importance of collective governence in holding these aspects together.
the level of multi-stakeholder engagement in coproducing resilience has to be rooted in a political ecology standpoint, and requires ideas, tools, space, time, and agency if it is to succeed
COLLABORATIVE FORM OF GOVERNANCE
COMMONING (Peter Linebaugh, 2009)
Social process that creates and reproduces the commons
RETURN OF THE COMMONS
This notion questions democratic foundations and the dual regime of public private ownership, reclaiming commonly produced values as a new revolutionary project.
Grassroots resilience movements producing new socio-economic values and have important role in recommoning the assets necessary for the community to sustain collective activities.
radical possibilities for resilience theory to go beyond neoliberal farming and forge new understanding of the world as an unstable and crisis prone socio-ecological economy (Nelson, 2014)
adopts a pluralist approach
network of citizen projects and grassroot organisation around collective civiic hubs hosting economic and cultural activties and productive practices that engaged with local resources and contributed to increasing resilience.
allows activties and places for urban agriculture, recycling, and reuse, community energy production, consumption reduction etc.
The hubs are key elements providing infrastructrure to enable change and offer space, training and capacity building for resilient practices to emerge and strategically connect each other
The network functions through locally closed systems starting at the neighbourhood level with the potential to scale up at the city level.
unlike in other top-down regenration, in R-urban, the researchers, architects, designers and planners acts as initiators, faciilitators, mediators and consultants within a pluralist approach that provides a platform for wider participation..
Citizen are encouraged to change the city by changing the way they live and work in the city (Harvey,2008).
avoids market speculations by providing alternative funding, based on a combination of institutional support for implementation, public and civic investment as welll as self-funding for running costs and by putting in place cooperative management structures.
R-Urban Hubs are prototypes for new ways of building and managing the neighborhood and demonstrate the positive impacts of ecological transition.
positive impacts are directed to the local citizens themselves in terms of diversity , modularity , social captial , innovation, overlap, tight feedback loops, ecosystem services, redundancy, connectivity, continous learning, and experiementation, high levels of participation, polycentric governance (Biggs,2012)
R-Urban Strategy established the conditions for resilience networks and initiatives to emerge in a neighbourhood through a variety of active individuals and local organisations becoming stakeholders in the R-Urban collective hubs, with civic support.
temporary available spaces are negotiated and made available for mid or long term use for R-urban activities for urban agriculture, recyling ad housing.
social housing estates to be transformed into co-housing estates involving collective management and maintenance of the estate.
each civic hub is flexibility connected to a small local network and at the same time is part of the wider R-urban network , enabling an open system of diverse hubs and productive practices to emerge.
enables all citizen who choose to become involved to participate fully in implementation of strategy.
Citizens are thus not only participants but also agents of innovation and change, generating alternative social and economic organisations, collaborative projects and shared spaces, producing new forms of commons.
new types of jobs, skills and specialisms emerging from this process allows a third sector of collaborative green services in the area of environmental management. (Wong & Bonitt, 2015) and diverse community economies. (Gibson-Graham, Cameroon & Healy, 2013) to emerge
generates local ecosystems of services and products that connects existing and emerging civic projects and practices.
residents encouraged to buy local products .
provides urban metabolic system within the then neighbourhoods.
-maintaining 'ecology of practices through citizen engagement
activity of citizens through the democratic governance of a commons associated with concrete hands-on actions as catalysts for urban transformation, innovation and creativity.
eventual aim is long term impact through the development of socio ecosystems.
Sub-urban town of Colombes, near Paris, was selected as the first area for developing R-Urban strategy.
has a high number of local organisations and a very active civic life.
implementation R-urban Strategy took 7 years.
passive people to active people
designing buildings to designing conditions
Research methods developed through practice by 'aaa' working with wider interdisciplinary research team as think tank. Intiative started by 'aaa' and developed into action research project thorugh a series of funded activites. These include international exchanges between R-urban stakeholders and actors in similar projects in europe and beyond to help develop the co-production methods.
includes the conception, building and governance of a network formed around three civic hubs.This strategy involved different actors (academic, public and civic) in a two fold co-production process
CO-PRODUCING A RESILIENCE CONTEXT
municipality as partner
coordination team with research team, municipal department, council representative
3 hubs ; agrocitie, recyclab and Ecohab-aimed to create a civic network around them.
agrocitie: urban agriculture, housing and local culture
Ecohab : ecoconstruction to enable citizen run services and local economic and ecological systems
R-urban executive team formed with emerging stakeholders and representatives .
EU funding programme informs co-production through formal assessment sessions and feedback on the implementation of the project.
Residents recruited via self-interests in the project at the outset through series of debates and workshops by aaa in Colombes
appropriate locations within available plots in the city were located using participation mapping process that shortlisted three locations for the first 3 hubs.
COPRODUCING CIRCULAR ECONOMY ,ECOLOGY AND CIVIC GOVERNANCE
collective governance is key for the resilience of commons as it involves an agreement and a shared concern not to destroy resources which all members of community depend
R-urban governance strategy based on multipolar network involving local and regional actors, formed around various nuclei of activties that animate forms of exchange and collaborations.
hubs as commons organisation as part of mutual coordination platform.
designed to set up local circular economies in the neighbourhood using see funding to construct physical infrastructure (the hubs) and provide development and training courses.
hubs as nodes of an ecological metabolic system emerging in the neighbourhood.
each of the proposed activties or emerging practices is governed by the group participating in the co-production of these dynamic and resilient systems in order to evolve rhizomatically, transforming and adapting according to who joins the ecosystem.
executive team dissolved after the local elections as a result of change in local politics and withdrawl of munitipality from project partnership
Despite sucessful outcomes of R-urban strategy in practice, the coproduction process within R-urban faced numerous internal and external challenges.
politically, resilience is not immediate concern.
large majority of locals did not join as they did not necessarily understand self-management, collective social organisation, economic and ecological benefits and the deliberately improvised aesthetics of the hubs (integration of reused and recycled materials)
R-urban way of working needs time to allow capacities to develop in citizen and diffuse through community.
conflict resolution skills were key in selecting the leaders of the two hubs.
hierchial governance model, the fear of decisiontaking within new processes , lack of capactiy and ecological literacy combined with passivity and indifference were the reasons why adminstratators and elected officials in Colombes didnt play active role in the project.
Tensions culminated after new adminstration decided to abolish and demolish R-urban hubs.
wave of solidarity amongst professionals, researchers, citizens and residents of Colombes who have engaged in different forms of protest. The new stage within the R-urban co-production process which is now framed as an advocacy campaign and political struggle aims to defend the socio-ecological commons created to challenge the local government.
community resilience is taken as threat by political actors.
blocked by politicians
R-URBAN IN PRACTICE
positive socio-ecological impact of R-urban is the direct result of commoning circular economy based on community run ecological systems.
hubs and their components provides infrastructure for an effective framework for governance, enables the various ecological and economic loops formed to work together coherently for the benefit of the local community.
Agrocitie garden involved locally produced vegetables and animal products. These were distributed locally through mini market , the canteen and the shop.
Agrocite canteen provided a hybrid economic model where unemployed people can took turns to prepare canteen meals once a week, cooking dishes with vergetables from garde and donating 20% of the profit to cover part of agrocitie's expenses.
Recylab hub operates recycling system and also as coworking space for local group of manufacturers.
concentric actor networks were formed around different groups and intiatives to manage the various ecological systems; the market, events and canteens.
network based micromanagement of ecosystems weaved together the economic social and ecological
local partnership formed in parallel with the gradual development of the user and stakeholder networks.