LEARNING is relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from…
LEARNING is relatively permanent change in behaviour that results from experience
- Leaning in which an action is punished or reinforced, resulting in increasing or decreasing occurrence
Every target response is reinforced and it is the quickest way to train behaviour.
Fixed Ratio (FR)
There must be a fixed (unchanged) number of target responses before reinforcement is given
Example: In a video game, every 100 coins you gather results in an extra life
Number of target responses require for reinforcement varies around some average, and the organism never knows exactly how many responses are required for the next reinforcement.
Example: A gambler never nows how many lottery tickets must be bought before he/she wins
First target response after a fixed interval of time has passed is reinforced.
Example: Checking the mailbox for mail which comes daily after 3 PM
It is similar to FI schedule, except that the length of the interval of time changes after each reinforcement, and the organism has no way of knowing how long the interval will be.
Example: Waiting for an important email
Works by presenting (adding) a negative consequence after an undesired behaviour is exhibited, making the behaviour less likely to happen in the future.
Happens when a certain desired stimulus is removed after a particular undesired behaviour happening less often in the future.
Works by presenting (adding) a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behaviour is exhibited, making the behaviour more likely to happen in the future.
Occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behaviour is exhibited. Negative reinforcement is increasing a behaviour, whereas with punishment, the behaviour is decreasing.
- Learning through watching and imitating the behaviour of others.
THE ROLE MODEL
- Tendency to repeat behaviours that we see each others rewarded for performing.
- The tendency not to repeat behaviours that we observe others punishment for performing.
EXAMPLE: Bobo Doll Experiment
- Will children behave the same way as an adult they observed.
One group watched an adult play nicely with a bobo doll.
The second group watched an adult play aggressively with a bobo doll.
A random sampling of young children were split into two groups
100% of the time the child behave the same way as the adult they observed.
Social Learning Theory: Albert Bandura
to be effective, four conditions must be met:
Need to store the memory of what you have observed
Must be able to repeat or reproduce the behaviour you observed
You must be able to pay attention to what the person is doing and to what happens to him or her
You must have motivation to learn/copy behaviour
- Learning procedure in which association are made between a neutral stimulus and a natural stimulus
Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus
Natural reaction to a stimulus
No initial response elicited
Once nutreal, trained to elicit desired response
Predictable response elicited
Types of Responses:
- Similar stimuli elicit CR
- Gradual disappearance of CR when CS repeatedly present with UCS
- Respond differently to similar stimuli
- Reappearance of extinct CR when CS re-paired with UCS