Carbon Compunds and the Macromolecules of Life (Carbon Chains and Rings…
Carbon Compunds and the Macromolecules of Life
Four Basic Macromolecules
Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. The monomer of lipids are glycerol and fatty acids. Lipids provide long term energy storage. Unsaturated fats are fats that don't have every possible bond with hydrogen, in fact, they have a double bond instead.
Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen. Monomer of proteins are amino acids.
Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen. The monomer of carbs are glucose molecules. Carbohydrates provide short-term energy in foods.
Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus. The monomer of nucleic acids are nucleotides that have three parts: a sugar, a base, and a phosphate group.
Carbon Chains and Rings
4 valence electrons available for bonding in its outer energy level
To be stable carbon atoms must form four covalent bonds fill its outer energy level
Carbon atoms bond with each other can form straight chains, branched chains, and rings
Large organic compounds called biomolecules
Cells build biomolecules by bonding small molecules together to form chains called
A large molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together
Polymers form when monomers bond togther
Many formed by a chemical reaction called dehydration
Six Common Elements
Dehydration and Hydrolysis
Means to add water to a molecule to break bonds
The covalent bond of a molecule breaks, a water molecule separates into H and OH and attaches to the exposed sites thus separating them into smaller molecules
Means to take water out so bonds can form
Either the hydrogen of one monomer combines with the hydroxyl group of another monomer releasing a molecule of water, or two hydrogens from one monomer combine with one oxygen from the other monomer releasing a molecule of water.
Either way water is released
High Energy Bonds
Each gram of carbohydrates stores 4 calories of energy, and lipids store 9 calories. Lipids more compact, therefore fat stores energy long term and carbs to store energy short term.
Characteristics and Role of Enzymes
Enzymes are proteins
A fundamental task of proteins is to act as enzymes—catalysts that increase the rate of virtually all the chemical reactions within cells
Speed up chemical reactions in the cell
Are affected by temperature
Are required in minute amounts
Are affected by pH
Some catalyse reversible reactions
Are inhibited by inhibitors
Build and break molecules