International relations in an age of Imperialism 1871-1918 (The '…
International relations in an age of Imperialism 1871-1918
The 'Scramble for Africa'
Causes of 'Scramble for Africa'
Strategical reasons: The open of Suez Canal in Egypt provide a faster route for trade with Asia.
Abolishment of Slavery: European merchants seeking for new income and resources for trading in Africa.
Medical Improvements: Africa no longer seen as the 'Dark Continent' as medicines were created for many diseases (e.g. quinne for Malaria). More explorers able to enter the continent for futher discoveries.
Map of Europe already set: European nations can no longer achieve their colonial aims within Europe, looking for chances in Africa.
A Sense of Duty: European exploerers entering Africa with aims of the three Cs, to spread religions.
Treaty of Berlin 1881
The Boer War: conflicts over Tranvaal region and Orange Free State regions bewteen Britain and Boers (Dutch)
First Boer War
Rich resources of gold and minerals in Tranvaal region
End of Anglo-Zulu War remove the natives of the Transvaal regions giving the Boers confidence to declare war.
Viotory of the Boer in the War
Independence given to the Transvaal region under British oversight
Second Boer War 1889
Further discovery of gold in the Tranvaal Region
High taxes applied on British immigrants in the region causing political conflicts between the governments
Telegram to the President Kruger of Tranvaal from Kaiser Wilhem giving Boers courage to declare war on Britain.
Effects of 'Scramble for Africa'
The Emergence of USA as a World Power
USA before 1971
Morine Doctrine: Stating USA would not interfer any conflicts that is not affecting their rights. ISOLATIONIST IDEA
Spanish American War, 1898
Battleship Maine sunk in Hanava Habour of Cuba
US public blame Spain who was putting down rebellions in Cuba
Lasted for one year, US vitory gained them a independent Cuba, Phillipines, Puerto Rico and Guam.
Election of 1900, public opinion already changed; in favour of expansionist ideas. Republican Cadidate, McKinley won the election.
President of USA after McKinley was assassinated
Encouraged the construction of Panama Canal, for expansion and international trade.
Platt Amendment (1903) qualified USA's influence over Cuba's foreign policies
Roosevelt's Corollary to the Morine Doctrine (1904), USA reacts to any foreign intervention to the Carribean States.
The Emergence of Japan as a World Power
Battleships all around the world
Not prepared for the attack
2 battleships in Port Arthur sunk directly
Last hope in the battleships in the Baltic Sea
Fired at British fishing boat accidentally
Britain closed Russia access to the Suez Canal, longer distance to travel. Only arrive at the straits a year later in 1915
Japan before 1971
The Alliance System in Euroupe
Uniting against Germany
Entente Corodinle (1904)
Anglo-Janpanese Naval Agreement (1902)
Tripple Entente (1907)
Franco-Russian Alliance (1894)
Bismark's Foreign Policy
Driekaiserbund (Three Emperors League),1873
Between Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia
Defensive, all countries to stay nutral when attacked by others.
FAILED due to long term conflicts between A-H and Russia over the Balkan states.
Dual Alliances, 1879
Bewtween Germany and A-H after the Driekaiserbund failed.
Protect each other if attacked by third party.
Triple Alliances, 1882
Based on Dual Alliances with the addition of Italy (joined due to conflicts with France).
Italy and A-H traditional enemies
Both not strong enough to give Germany vital support if attacked by France.
With Russia to avoid war on two fronts
Dismisal of Bismarck in 1890
Once Kaiser Wilhem took control, Germany had adapted to a more aggressive foreign policy.
The Road to War
Conflicts over the Balkan states
Between Austria-Hungary and Russia.
Variation of nationalities in the Balkan states, Austrian claimed right over some of the area.
Russia want states to remain independece, to guarantee their control over the Dardanelles (giving them access to warm water in the Black Sea).
Assassination of Archduck Franz Ferdinando
Emperor of Austria-Hungary, assassinated by Serbian nationalists.