Emotional and Cognitive Socialization Outcomes (Values (Affected by…
Emotional and Cognitive Socialization Outcomes
Some values are basic human values. (Ex: The Ten Commandments)
Some values are basic to a certain society. (Ex: Bill of Rights)
Affected by Societal Perceptions
Normality: societal norms at a given time, as well as who is deviating from those norms.
How society deals with such deviations. (Ex: psychological help, social services, medical care.) and include labels.
Affected by Personal Perceptions
Age, experience, cognitive development, and moral reasoning affect values. Children define their values as they get older: a mix between parents and society.
Definition: a tendency to respond positively (favorably) or negatively (unfavorably) to certain persons, objects, or situations.
Composed of: beliefs, feelings, and behavior tendencies; what we attend to in our environment and how we perceive the information.
Prejudice: an attitude involving prejudgment; the application of a previously formed judgment to some person, object,or situation. :star:
Development of Attitudes
Phase I-awareness of cultural differences, beginning at about age 2.5-3.
Phase II- orientation toward specific culturally related words and concepts, beginning at about age 4.
Phase III- attitudes toward various cultural groups, beginning at about age 7.
Transgender: an umbrella term for individuals whose gender identity or gender expression and behavior does not conform to that typically associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth. :star:
Gender identity: refers to a person's internal sense of being male, female, or something else. :star:
Modeling: children see parents ' cultural attitudes and develop similar attitudes through role modeling.
Instruction: Learn attitudes through instruction. Their limited experience=not apt to have heard anything different.
Reinforcement and Punishment: attitudes can be associated with positive words and negative remarks to influence.
Children compare the acceptability of their beliefs with those of their friends.
Television and Movies: television as a source of information that influences their attitudes about people and things.
Books: influential in attitude formation; abstract attitudinal concepts from their social experiences and try them out.
Example: American custom regarding privacy is to label public restrooms for women and men.
School: school sets gender expectations and social expectations.
Changing Attitudes about Diversity
Prejudicial attitudes can be changed by enabling children to have positive experiences (both real and vicarious) with cultural minorities.
Motives and Attributions
Motives: a need or emotion that causes a person to act; moved to do something.
Intrinsic- doing an activity for inherent satisfaction or enjoyment.
Within-person: changes result from cognitive or emotional maturation, such as becoming more curious as one is able to learn more and becoming more competent as one is able to master more.
Extrinsic: doing an activity to attain some separable outcome, to get a reward or avoid punishment.
Socially mediated changes- result from contexts children experience as they grow, such as family, school, or peer group, and the accompanying feelings of autonomy or control.
Attribution: an explanation for one's performance.
Achievement motivation: refers to the learned motivation to achieve mastery of challenging tasks. :star:
Achievement motivation or mastery orientation are correlated with actual achievement behavior.
Locus of control one's attribution of performance, or perception of responsibility for success or failure; may be internal or external. :star:
Internal locus of control: perception that one is responsible for one's own fate. :star:
External locus of control: perception that others or outside forces are responsible for one's fate. :star:
Mastery-oriented attribution: believing they can change the outcome in the future by exerting more effort to correct their mistakes.
Learned-helpless orientation: don't attribute the outcomes of their performance to their own efforts or strategies, they give up quickly.
the perception, acquired through negative experiences, that effort has no affect on outcomes. :star:
lack of effort v. lack of ability.
Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem
Self-efficacy: the belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes. :star:
Personal agency: the realization that one's actions cause outcomes. :star:
Most significant influence on self-efficacy beliefs is actual experience. Next is vicarious experience-observing others execute competent behavior. Additional influence: verbal instruction, encouragement, and feedback on performance and physiological reactions such as fatigue, stress, or anxiety.
Self-esteem: the value one places on one's identity. :Star:
Related to self-efficacy in that one's identity, or self-concept, incorporates many forms of self-knowledge and self-evaluative feelings.
1.) Scholastic competence 2.) Athletic competence 3.) Social competence 4.) Physical appearance 5.) Behavioral conduct, in addition to global self-worth.
Development of Self-Esteem
Significance: the way one perceives she is loved and cared about by significant others.
Competence: the way one performs tasks one considers important.
Virtue: how well one attains moral and ethical standards.
Family: parental approval is particularly critical in determining the self-esteem of children.
Warm, Strict (but noncoercive), Democratic.
School: Child who is reared to conform to certain traits: responsible, self-reliant, autonomous, competent individual.
Peers: Body type, bullying, physical and emotional differences, perceived ideal of one's peers, all affects self-esteem.
Mass Media: Advertising strategies on television and in magazines portray ideal physical stereotypes.
Community: Sexism in the workplace leads to a drop in women's self-esteem when they enter the workplace. Social identity compared to that of the majority of the neighborhood.