- cephalization - concentration of neurons in the head region
- occur in flatworms and higher invertebrates
- echinoderm and cnidarian lack cephalization
Central nervous system (CNS)
- high degree of cephalization and elaborate nervous system.
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
- brain and spinal cord
- performs integration and initiates motor command.
- carries sensory information to the CNS & sends motor command to the muscles and glands.
- motor neurones divided into:
- Somatic nervous system (regulate voluntary actions)
- Autonomic nervous system (regulate involuntary actions)
- Promotes responses that are associated with a relaxed state.
- Promote responses that are associated with an active state.
- comprised of dendrites, cell body and axon
- Neuroglia - cells that provide support and nourishment to the neurons
Types of neurones
- Sensory (afferent) neurons
- Interneurons (association neurons)
- Motor (efferent) neurons
- affects neurotransmitters release or uptake.
- Increases the action of GABA
- increases the release of endorphins.
Club and Date Rape Drugs
- caused the release of dopamine
- increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle activity
- Ecstasy produce serotonin that elevates our mood.
- Pinterferes with re-uptake of dopamine at synapses.
- Result is a rush of well-being
- acts as a depressant in the nervous system
- depress breathing, block pain pathways, cloud mental function, and cause nausea.
Treatment for Addictive Drugs
- THC may mimic the actions of anandamide
- euphoria，hallucinations, anxiety, depression, body image distortions, paranoia, and psychotic symptoms
- behavior modification
- Heroin addiction - synthetic opiate compounds
- Administration of antibodies .