PROCESS-ORIENTED SYLLABUS (PROCEDURAL SYLLABUS (Similar to Tas Based…
Similar to Tas Based Syllabus
‘Bangalore Project’ by N. S. Prabhu
Prabhu (1987) argues that teaching through communication takes place when learners are involved in doing a set of tasks.
an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understanding language (i.e. as a response).
the products students are to formulate
the operations that are required to generate the product
the resources available to the student to generate the product.
PROCEDURE IN DEVELOPING IT
Conduct a needs analysis to obtain an inventory of target tasks.
Classify the target tasks into task types.
From the task types, derive pedagogical tasks.
4.Select and sequence the pedagogical tasks to form a task syllabus.
teaching of content or information in the language being learned with little or no direct to teach the language itself separately from the content being taught.
This might be other subjects in a school curriculum such as science/ social studies, or specialist subject matter relating to an academic or technical field such as mechanical engineering, medicine/ computing.
THE NATURAL APPROACH
The natural approach is a language teaching approach which claims that language learning is a reproduction of the way humans naturally acquire their native language.
(Krashen and Terrell, 1983)
LONG'S TASK-BASED PROPOSAL
Can be summarized as;
The goal of the Natural approach is communication skills
Comprehension precedes production
Production emerges (i.e. learners are not forced to respond)
Activities which promote subconscious acquisition rather than conscious learning are central.
The affective filter is lowered
(After Krashen and Terrell 1983: 58)
SYLLABUS DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
“selection and organization of instructional content including suggested strategy for presenting content and evaluation”- Brown, 1995
Engage the learners in problem –solving tasks as purposeful activities.
Necessary resource for the achievement of communicative outcome
Nunan (1985) presents a typology of activity types in which difficulty is determined by the cognitive and performance demands made upon the learner.
the skills and processes involved in learning language