Why England: 1. Population growth: resulted in more people from the countryside being freed up to work for wages in new cities,- and eventually increased demand for products such as clothing. 2. Financial Innovations: such as central banks, stock markets, and joint stock companies- encouraged people, especially in Northern Europe, to take risks with investments, trad,e and new technologies. 3. World Trade: gradually increased in the centuries before the Industrial Revolution and provided European countries access to raw materials and a market for goods.