Arthritis & Muscluoskeletal Conditions (Definitions (Arthritis is a…
Arthritis & Muscluoskeletal Conditions
Arthritis is a term used to describe a disorder of one or more joints. Arthritis disorders are part of a broader group of disorders of the muscles and bones called muscluoskeletal disorders.
Osteoarthritis is one of the most common forms of arthritis. It is characterised by the cartilage being worn down.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease characterised by inflammation of the joints. The immune system attacks the tissues lining the joints, resulting in inflammation, pain and swelling.
Osteoporosis (meaning 'porous bones') is a disease where bone density deteriorates, leaving the bone weak and more prone to fracture.
Juvenile arthritis refers to any form of arthritis that occurs in individuals under the age of 16. As juvenile arthritis encompasses a range of conditions, there are no set symptoms but it is often characterised by swelling, stiffness and pain, which can effect any joint.
2 nutritional RISK factors
Protein - Excess protein intake can increase the loss of calcium from bones, which increases the risk of osteoporosis. Protein deficiency may reduce bone density and increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Sodium - Excess sodium causes calcium to be excreted in urine, which can decrease bone density and contribute to osteoporosis.
3 nutritional PROTECTIVE factors
Calcium - Acts as a hardening agent for the mineralisation of bones, which increases bone mass and reduces the risk of osteoporosis.
Phosphorous - Works with calcium as a hardening agent for bones, which increases bone mass and reduces the risk of osteoporosis.
Vitamin D - Required for the absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestine into the bloodstream, which increases bone density and decreases the risk of osteoporosis.
Reasons why NHPA?
Lead high rates of morbidity (YLD)
Account for 5% of the BOD in Australia
3 non-nutritional RISK factors
Biological, Body weight - being overweight or obese puts more pressure on joints, which can increase the chances of developing arthritis.
Social, Occupations - jobs including heavy lifting can increase the risk of back problems.
Physical environment, Transport systems - transport systems that do not promote active transport may contribute to weight gain and arthritis
3 Direct costs
Doctors/specialist fees (Individual & Community)
Hospital fees (Individual & Community)
Medication costs (Individual & Community)
3 Indirect costs
Exercise programs (Individual)
Payments for carers (Individual)
Loss of productivity (Community)
3 Intangible costs
Severe impact of pain & suffering (Individual)
Family pain &suffering (Community)