Planned Approach to Change
Planned Approach to Change
Action Research --> 1- Emphasizes that change requires action, and is directed at achieving this, 2-it also recognizes that successful action is based on analyzing the situation correctly, identifying all the possible alternative solutions and choosing the one most appropriate to the situation at hand
To be successful there has also to be a 'felt-need' which is an individual's realization that change is necessary. I.e., if felt-need is low, introducing change in the group becomes problematic.
"One cannot understand an organization without trying to change it"
Routines and patterns of behavior in a group are more than just the outcome of opposing forces in a forcefield; they have a value in themselves and have a positive role to play in enforcing group norms
3-step model --> A successful change project involves 3 steps:
1- Unfreezing- Equilibrium needs to be destabilized (unfrozen) before old behavior can be discarded (unlearnt) and new behavior successfully adopted
The key to unfreezing 'was to recognise that change, whether at the individual or group level, was a profound psychological dynamic process'
2- Moving- Take into account all the forces at work and identify and evaluate, on a trial and error basis, all the available options
3- Refreezing- New behavior must be, to some degree. congruent with the rest of the behavior, personality and environment of the learner or it will simply lead to a new round of disconfirmation (it will not be sustained).
Newer approaches have been taken to tend and take a holistic/contextual view of organizations and their environments, and there is an emphasis on change as a continuous process which is heavily influenced by culture, power and politics.
In order to survive, organizations must develop the ability to change themselves continuously in a fundamental manner (like in retail)
The key to survival is to develop rules which are capable of keeping an organization operating 'on the edge of chaos'. If organizations are too stable, nothing changes and the system dies; if too chaotic, the system will be overwhelmed by change.
Field Theory --> To understand any situation: "one should view the present situation -the status quo- as being maintained by certain conditions or forces. Individual behavior is a function of the group environment, group behavior not only affect group structures, but also modify individual behavior.
"Change and constancy are relative concepts; group life is never without change, merely differences in the amount and type of change exist"
If we are able to identify, plot and establish the potency of these forces, then it would be possible not only to understand why individuals, groups and organizations act as they do, but also why forces would need to be diminished or strengthened in order to bring about change.
Group Dynamics --> Refer to the forces operating in groups, and the importance of the group in shaping the behavior of its members
"It's not the similarity or dissimilarity of individuals that constitutes a group, but interdependence of fate" Group Dynamics stresses that group behavior, rather than that of individuals, should be the main focus of change.
The focus of change must be at the group level and should concentrate on factors such as groups norms, roles, interactions and socialization processes to create 'disequilirbium' and change
"To be stable, a cultural change has to penetrate all aspects if a nation's life. The change must, in short, be a change in the "cultural atmosphere", not merely a change of a single item" Change in culture requires the change of leadership forms in every walk of life.
A unifying theme of much of his work is the view that: "the group to which an individual belongs is the ground for his perceptions, his feelings and his actions" A single well-integrated system.