Topic 7: User-centred design (UCD)
Topic 7: User-centred design (UCD)
7.1 User-Centred Design (UCD)
Fondation: (Donald Norman) A multi-step problem solving process where designers foresee and test the validity of the needs, capabilities and behavior of users to incorporate this info into the entire design process.
Unique Philosophy: attempts to optimize the product around how users can, want, or need to use the product, rather than forcing the users to change their behavior to accommodate the product.
Definition: a process give extensive attention to the needs, wants, and limitations of end users at each stage of the design process
Basically: studying people’s behaviors and attitudes as a first step in designing successful products.
Iterative Design: Act of repeating a cyclic process of prototyping, testing, analyzing, and refining a product or process with the aim of approaching a desired goal, target or result.
Inclusive Design: The design of mainstream products that are accessible and usable by many people without the need for adaptation or specialised design.
5 steps: research, concept, design, implementation, launch (with observation testing/ user evaluation throughout)
7.4 Strategies for User-Centered Design
User-centred design: A design process that pays particular attention to the needs of potential users of a product by involving them in all stages of the design process.
Field research: A first hand observation of customer's user experience. It is essential
for the research to be conducted in the user's environment.
Observation: A collection of responses from users, a trail of observation of users interacting with the product.
Advantages: uncover previously unrecognized usability problems, and products are tested under actual conditions of use.
Disadvantages: Data can be complex to analyse, noise of the environment may disguise small effects, and observations is usually only done on finished produects.
Interviews: Gaining feedback by asking questions
Advantages: The interviewer can ask for clarification if intent of question is unclear.
Disadvantages: Time consuming, relatively small groups may not represent all usability issues, and respondents are not anonymous which influence their attempt to please the interviewer.
Also use: Focus Groups, Questionnaires, and more.
diagramming: A tool used to organise ideas and information.
Participatory design: When users representing the target market for a product perform
realistic tasks by interacting with a paper version of the user-product
interface manipulated by a person acting as a computer who does
not explain how the interface works.
Prototype testing sessions: A session where a test product is made and tested - all experiments
are conducted before making the final product, making all changes
necessary that can be seen when the prototypes are used.
Usability Testing Sessions: The testing of a product with potential users to find out how usable
the product is.
Natural Environments: The monitoring of the user interacting with the product in their
homes, place of work or other natural product usage environments.
Usability Lab: A lab in which usability testing is carried out, and test users are
monitored by another group of observers in a different room. ALL ASPECTS CONTROLLED
Targets usefulness, effectiveness, learnability and likeability.
Enhanced usability through simplification of controls and interfaces.
Definition: The extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals effectively and efficiently, while functioning in a predictable and consistent manner.
Characteristics of a good user-product interface: These include: simplicity and ease of use; intuitive logic, organization and low memory burden; visibility; feedback; affordance; mapping; and constraints.
7.5 Beyond Usability
Physio-pleasure: sensual pleasure that comes from touching, smelling, hearing or tasting something. It can also be derived from a feeling of satisfaction that comes from the effectiveness of an object in enabling an action to be performed
Psycho-pleasure: Types of pleasure that comes from cognition, discovery, knowledge and other things that satisfy the intellect.
Socio-pleasure: Pleasures that come from a feeling of belonging to a social group, social-enablers, and other ways that one can identify oneself with social groups.
Ideo-pleasure: Pleasures linked to our ideal, aesthetically, culturally and otherwise.
The attract/converse/ transact (ACT) model: A framework for creating designs that improve the relations of users with a product and intentionally trigger emotional responses.
7.3 Strategies for User Research
Fondation: A designer needs to understand the reasons behind the behaviors, wants, and needs of the user. The user population is the group expected to use and item, product or data. These can be divided into personae, secondary personae, and anti-personae for user research.
Personae: A profile of the primary target audience for a product
Secondary Personae: A profile of those who are not the primary target audience for a product, but whose needs the product should meet.
Anti-Personae: A profile of those for whom a product is not designed.
Use case: A set of possible sequences of interactions or event steps between a user and a product to achieve a particular action.