End of the Cold War-The Collapse of the Communist World (Fall of the…
End of the Cold War-The Collapse of the Communist World
The Afghanistan rebels were called Mujahideen and they were supported by the United States. The United States supported them in order to overthrow the communist government and stop communism from spreading.
The Soviet Union supported Afghanistan.
The war occurred from December 24, 1979 to February 15, 1989.
The Soviets invaded Afghanistan because they became very concerned that President Amin was having discussions with the United States.
The war affected the image of the Soviet military because the war was not a success for them. It made the military look weak; the army seemed no longer invincible to the rest of the world.
The United States responded to the invasion by pulling out of the SALT treaty talks, and they boycotted the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow.
The new leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, realized the war was costing Soviet troops and hurting the army, so he signed a peace treaty and ended the war on February 15, 1989.
Perestroika and Glasnost
Some of the problems plaguing the Soviet Union were that the economy was falling apart, the country lacked technological advancements, and the people suffered from a shortage of social freedoms.
Perestroika: refers to the reconstruction of the political and economic system established by the Communist party. Politically, contested elections were introduced to reflect the democratic practices of Western society and allow citizens to have a slight say in government.t
The ultimate aim for Perestroika was to create a semi-free market system, reflecting successful capitalist practices in the economies of Germany, Japan, and the United States.
Glasnost: means “openness” and was the name for the social and political reforms to bestow more rights and freedoms upon the Soviet people. Freedom of speech and Freedom of press
The ultimate aim for Glasnost was to include more people in the political process through freedom of expression. This led to a decreased censoring of the media, which in effect allowed writers and journalists to expose news of government corruption and the depressed condition of the Soviet people.
Reflection: no, the concepts support a free system and would interfere with the communism.
Fall of the Berlin Wall
Reagan's argument is that the Wall should be torn down. He uses Perestroika and Glasnost as another resource of what freedom should be, without the Wall.
The reform policies of Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sparked the destruction of the Berlin Wall.
Ronald Reagan's main point in the clip is that with the wall continuing to stand, it is a question for all people.
The Wall fell on November 9, 1989
Ronald Reagan emphasizes his descriptions to describe the Berlin Wall to keep people listening.
The Wall stood as a symbol of the Cold War division of East from West Germany and of Eastern to Western Europe. It symbolized the fall of communism and the birth of democracy in the Iron Curtain countries.
Reagan's message to Eastern Europe and East Berlin is that he speaks to them just as he speaks to the Western side of Europe and Berlin.
The United States and NATO effectively bankrupted the countries behind the Iron Curtain and forced the Soviets to back down.
American Presidents come to Berlin because it's their duty to speak in the place of freedom.
The policies brought by Mikhail Gorbachev led to the fall of the Berlin Wall.
The Wall symbolized the "Iron Curtain" that separated the democratic western countries and the communist countries of Eastern Europe throughout the Cold War
One important event that occurred during the collapse of the Wall was Ronald Reagan's speech saying to tear down the Wall. Another was that the Soviet Union was beginning to collapse as well. The last was that the Soviet Union was beginning to lose grip of eastern Europe.
The Berlin wall was built to prevent people from fleeing East Berlin.
Fall of the Soviet Union
Brezhnev Doctrine: cemented Soviet influences over Eastern Europe established by Leonid Brezhnev.
Gorbachev treated the Eastern Bloc countries during the Iron Curtain not very well. He cracked down hard on revolutionaries who spoke about possible life under a democratic capitalism by forcing them into exile or sending them off to a forced labor camp.
Perestroika and Glasnost backfired on Gorbachev because Perestroika was unsuccessful due to "small doses" of capitalism surrounded by communism. Glasnost encouraged more free thought, but also gave citizens the power to lambast their leaders.
The "Real problem" with the Soviet communist government was that there was no real way for the nation's economy to grow. Under capitalism, private businesses naturally seek ways to grow revenue. however, communism relies on the government to regulate everything.
The Soviet people were not producing any goods at the same time that they were growing increasingly reliant on others.
Soviet military spending affected its citizens because while the military was spending money on missiles, their citizens were forced to ration basic food and household supplies.
Stagnation is the slowing of the economy and unemployment increasing more and more.
Reasons 1 and 4 were were equally responsible for the Collapse of the Soviet because stagnation slows the economy and the unemployment rates go up. Reason number four states that the military was spending money unnecessarily, causing citizens to ration food and items they need to use.