3 Nutritional RISK factors
Carbohydrates, protein and fats – contributes energy to the diet, which can lead to weight gain and obesity.
Trans fats – can interfere with cell membranes and contribute to high blood glucose levels. Impaired glucose regulation.
Saturated fat - reduces the ability of the body to effectively use insulin, contributing to increased risk of impaired glucose regulation.
3 Nutritional PROTECTIVE factors
Fibre - Increases the feeling of fullness, which can reduce overeating, preventing obesity and reducing the risk of diabetes mellitus. Reduces blood glucose levels, which can protect against obesity, impaired glucose regulation and diabetes mellitus.
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats - may decrease the impact of impaired glucose regulation and reduces the risk of diabetes mellitus.
Water - contributes no kilojoules to energy intake, reducing the risk of obesity and associated conditions, including diabetes mellitus.
3 Non-nutritional RISK factors
Social, Early life experience - low birth weight increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in later life. Bad eating habits and lack of physical activity lead to obesity which then leads to diabetes mellitus
Biological, Genetic predisposition - People who have family members who have diabetes are at a higher risk of developing all types of diabetes than those who don't.
Behavioural, Physical inactivity - being physically inactive can lead to weight gain, which increases the chances of obesity and therefore type 2 diabetes.
Reasons why NHPA?
Leading contributor to the BOD
Type 2 is easily preventable
3rd most frequently managed condition
3 Indirect costs
Social security payments (Community)
Loss of productivity (Individual)
Carer payments (Individual)
3 Direct costs
Medication like insulin needles (Individual)
Health promotion program (Community)
Doctors appointments (Individual)
3 Intangible costs
Frustration over having to make decisions to make changes (Individual)
Anxiety about the possibility that the condition could progress (Individual)
Family stress and anxiety (Community)
Definition: Is a chronic condition in which the sufferer is unable to utilise blood glucose correctly.