Relationships and Processes in Schools (Hidden Curriculum (How it is…
Relationships and Processes in Schools
Children socialized into various norms and values. Messages and Ideas that schools do not directly tech, but which children learn.
How it is transmitted?
The school hierarchy. Places white males in positions of power, females in the middle and blacks w/c in lower jobs.
Wearing a uniform
Curriculum and Pastoral system
Encourage and discourage certain values and beliefs
Should not be assumed that HC gives a single ambiguous message
HENRY GIROUX - schools are sites of ideological struggle. Places where different political and moral views may coexist and be in competition. Teachers have different views and informal messages
Groups whose attitudes, lifestyles and values are shared.
PETER WOODS - eight ways of adapting schools. Ingratiation, Compliance - Instransgence Rebellion
HARGREAVES - anti- school w/c sub-cultures are found in bottom streams. Caused by labeling of 'low-stream failures'. Unable to achieve status, they set own delinquent values, by which they can achieve success in eyes of peers
Labelling and Self-fulfilling prophecy
Teacher expectations can have the effect of creating a 'self-fulling prophecy'
Pupils accept the label as being true and internalize this as part of self-concept.
They react against the labelling process and conform to negative assumptions, by exhibiting poor behaviors
Influential concept in 1970's and 80s, which led to educational reform.
Teacher- Pupil Relationships
Teachers prefer to teach pupils whom they perceive to be well behaved,well motivated and compliant. They tend to reward such pupils with praise,good marks and higher sets. These pupils tend to be middle class and White, teachers tend to judge them by their own cultural standards and they are White Middle class
The 'Ideal Pupil' as one who conforms to middle class standards behavior
BECKER- Teachers did not ascribe low ability w/c pupils.
GILLBORN AND YOUDELL - Teachers discriminate against W/C by failing to recognize their intelligence. They use judgements to allocate W/C pupils to lower sets and foundation tier exams
Pupils respond with resentment and create hostile situations with reduced motivation which negatively impacts their learning
Ethnic-minority's feel angry at the way they are singled out for punishment when White pupils are often guilty.
The organisation of teaching and learning
The way pupils are allocated to teaching groups
- pupils of all ability taught together. Allow weaker pupils to engage with more able students. Both social and educational benefits = broader social mix
- pupils grouped by ability for most or all of their lessons. Top stream is most academic and bottom are lowest achievers. Supporters believe this ensures that the most able are not held back and the least able can be given extra support
- Pupils placed in ability groups for particular subjects. So mixed throughout learning. Helps teachers to prepare pupils for particular exam tier
Within Class grouping
- where teacher make ability groups in class- more common in primary schools. Pupils are aware of their group they are in
League tables has influence ability groups in schools
IRESON - grouping is not always based on attainment, behavior plays a crucial role. Setting is beneficial for more able pupils in top groups, bottom sets receive little challenge
Concerned with how individuals see themselves and how they are seen by others
Link to differential achievement, whether pupils identify themselves as being academic or non- academic
Link to Friendship groups, how education influences ideas of masculinity and femininity.