Language Impairment in Dual Language Children
Dual Language Children
Maintaining the home language is important socially and emotionally
Support both languages! They can benefit both languages academically and cognitively
Interdependence between two languages
Language dominance can shift
What are the Characteristics of Dual Language Children with Language Delay/Impairment?
:explode: The characteristics of Dual Language with language delay/impairments according to researchers go against the idea of limited capacity hypothesis. This supports the fact that Dual Language Children with SLI expected to learn two languages, are not at an increased risk for great language deficiencies
Children and Bilingual Children and Development
But may take longer to reach 90% or greater accuracy in producing all grammatical morphemes in both languages
In dominant language, display vocabulary sizes and morphosyntactic abilities on par with monolingual children. In their non-dominant language they can display lower language abilities than monolingual children
Show productive command of the various components of morphosyntax following a same time lien as monolingual children but they can lag behind in perfecting some details
Bilingual children who receive 50% or more of input in another language will display similar development as monolingual children in that language
they tend yo be smaller that those of monolinguals in each language, but when combined, they are big or bigger that the vocabularies of monolinguals.
Bilingual children are not delayed in the onset of the early linguistic milestones of 1st word and 1st word combinations
Simultaneous Bilingual Children
learn two or more languages from birth or learn both languages sometimes before 3 years of age(have two first languages and are exposed to languages in different ways). There less accurate with late acquired grammatical morphemes (verb morphology) in both languages.
Second Language Learners
begin to learn an additional language after 3 years of age (after the language has been established and often exposed to their additional language at school). Children with SLI performed worse on verb morphology and nonword repetiton tasks
Defining Language Delay and Language Impairment in Dual Language
- are delays in timing of language development milestones that occur in infants and children. Infants display delay in speech due to sensory deficits, hearing impairment, and developmental deficits. (Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, autism spectrum and SLI) :warning:
Take longer producing word combinations,
Show no evidennce of other clinical conditions, but their language normalizes with time
Exhibit delays in speech!
Language Impairment start off with delays but their difficulties and protracted development of language extend into the school-age years and possibly never completely resolve over time :warning:
They can come close to their unaffected peers for some language abilities by the end of elementary school.
Measurements of the childrens performance using standardized test such as
Normal Range :check:
Normal Curve :checkered :check:
Standard Deviation :check:
Specific Language Impairment is relatively common development in 7% of the population. Profound delays/deficits in language processing skills! (language learning and phonological memory)
4-7 year olds affected in terms of vocab size, sentence length and narratives (can be mor than 2 yrs delayed)
The root of SLI include inherited genetic component
Debates among researchers 1)ability to establsih linguistic mental representations 2) cognitive processing mechanisms or both cause SLI
Assessment, Interventions, Identifications of Dual Language
:red_flag: Over-identification of language and learning disabilities is hazardous in multicultural and multilingual settings. If a child is inappropriately diagnosed he/she may receive unnecessary services and this could result in being inappropriately placed in special education class.
Assessment and Intervention with dual language children is widely acknowledged that use of monolingual norm-referenced testing material with dual language children can lead to biased assessment. Also underestimating dual language children's linguistic competence and learning capabilities is still a common practice It's important for clinician's working with diverse linguistic and cultural communities to be aware of the situation and understand the issues that arise when monolingual standardized tests are used with dual language children
Overlaps Between L1 and L2
Overlap in L2 and SLI has been found for language processing. :fire:
Morphosyntactic characteristics between typical L2 development and impaired development is a factor to over identification :fire:
Speed of processing and accuracy on picture-naming task were similar in Spanish-English children and English monolingual children with SLI :fire:
Bilingual Input Factors
Bilingual Children take longer to master certain aspects of morphosyntax than monolingual children :star:
A bilingual child's dominant language is usually the language they hear and use more often :star:
Children who have been learning two languages from birth cannot be expected to perform according to monolingual norms on tests :star:
Limitations in Assessing Minority Language comes with a price of the SLP is not fluent in both languages spoken by the child.
Interpreters and/or cultural brokers from the child's background cannot be found in the are
The child's current abilities in the minority language may be weak because s/he is in the process of losing that language and may thus perform poorly on formal or informal evaluations of that language
Normn-referencing would not be valid
Translations are not culturally adapted
Translated test from the majority language would be problomatic
Attrition of the minority language could result in poor performance on the test, regardless of whether a child has language learning difficulties.
Should Children with Language Delay/Impairment Learn two languages?
No evidence for thinking that learning two languages is a risk factor for children with delays or impairment, and no evidence parents to use one language and not place children in immersion education. For some children, continuing to learn both languages would have benefits for them.
Strategies for Identification of Dual Language Children
Obtain information about both language and exposure. Also obtain cultural background
use (as this is important for a child who thinks its rude to look another person in the eye while talking). Use alternative norm-referencing for tests, strategies for assessment
and dynamic assessment