moved capital to Tehran
Shia clerical leaders started to claim to be main interpreters of Islam
separation of government and religion
Constitutional Revolution of 1905-1909
began with business owners and bankers
worried shah would sacrifice domestic debts for European loans
Constitution of 1906
separation of powers
elected legislature creating laws
given to "people of the book"
Bills of Rights
- clerics with the power to veto any legislation passed by Majles.
"People of the Book"
- monotheistic people who subjected their lives to the holy books (similar to the Qu'an).
serious economic constraints
trade shifted to Indian and Atlantic Oceans
lack of arable land
no large bereaucracy/ standing army
local rulers collected taxes
lost power bc economic problems and divsions
The Islamic Revolution and Republic
- 1979- present
almost completely religious in nature
resulted in theocracy
secular too quickly
ties to the US
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
- emphasized literal interpretation of Islamic texts, social coservatism, political tradtionalism, and resentments toward US.
- jurist's guardianship
started through coup lead by
Colonel Reza Khan
Majles lost power
democratic challenges to shah
- masses party.
support from trade unions
middle class nationalism
- economy heavily supported by state expenditure.
import substitution industrialization
- encouraging domestic industries to provide products that the population needs.
"The White Revoultion"
- meant to counter communist (red) influences.
focused on land reform
women could vote
women could work outside home