Connected Thinking :star:
Birth of Consumer Culture
Most Important Consumer Product: Automobile
There was a huge surge in consumer credit and it became acceptable to go into debt, which hit many Americans hard when the Great Depression came along.
TV and radio were very new as a format, and increasingly popular.
Many new appliances came into existence, like the washer and the radio.
Great Migration of African Americans
Increasing visibility of black culture
Led to the Harlem Renaissance
Women became more independent and challenged society's values.
Flappers challenged the standard for what was feminine by adopting a more androgynous look and changing their fashion style.
Women earned the right to vote via the 19th Amendment.
More women than ever worked outside the home and more went to college with hopes of getting a job in the future.
Margaret Sanger was a prominent leader in the new pro-abortion movement.
Progressive foreign policy ideas that started with Teddy Roosevelt carried on into the presidency of Woodrow Wilson and led to increased involvement in Latin American affairs.
World War II
Women started playing a more active role in society
Women in the Armed Forces
WASPs were the first women to fly American military aircrafts
May 1942: Institution of Women's Auxillary Army Corps
Rosie the Riveter
Large recruitment of women workers
Aviation industry saw the greatest increase in female workers
Most iconic image of working women during WWII
Stressed patriotic need for working women
Women in industrial work began wearing pants.
America essentially abandoned its long standing neutral-isolationist stance by entering the war.
America established itself as a world leader because it came out on top in the war and was the only world power at the time to have nuclear weapons.
Through his fireside chats and newsreels, FDR used the newest technology to communicate with the people.
FDR expanded the power of the federal government as never seen before, and ambitiously attempted to end the Great Depression.
Americans had a surge of patriotism, national pride, and hope during this period.
American media produced much propaganda that influenced the American people to villainize all Germans, Japanese, and people from the Axis countries, even in America. They thought all of them were monsters.
The Great Depression
Strikes were frowned upon because it was seen as communism/fascism
Some 13-15 million Americans were out of a job during the Great Depression.
Americans could not afford the credit payments and defaulted on loans and installment plans. This caused banks and businesses to lose a lot of money.
Many banks shut down and went bankrupt.
American Experience in Rural Areas
Hoover's protective tariffs curbed farm production and lessened the profitability of selling farmed goods overseas.
Overabundance of production
This coupled with a massive drought led to an ecological disaster known as the "Dust Bowl".
Many farmers migrated westward to California and other big cities, where they soon discovered that companies drove up supply of labor where there was a lack of land. This angered them, and many wanted to join labor unions.
African Americans , Hispanics, and Asians faced worse economic conditions and discrimination.
When farmers were told to reduce their production, sharecroppers' leases were immediately terminated due to unavailable land.
This led to large unemployment rates in the black and Hispanic communities.
Americans in the Western states believed that Hispanics and Asians had stolen their jobs.
The disdain against these people grew until the Hoover Administration approved the deportation of Hispanics.
The forced migration continued under the Roosevelt Administration until close to two million Mexicans were removed from the country.
The New Deal
Relief projects were targeted at helping rural America, where the Depression hit especially hard.
The Farm Security Act and Agricultural Adjustment Administration were focused on providing relief for farmers.
The Public Works Administration created jobs for the unemployed by raising the funds to use in different projects.
The Civilian Conservation Corps was created to provide jobs for young men, and to assist families with difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression.They planted trees, and constructed trails and lodges in more than 800 parks.
Roosevelt's theory in rebuilding the economy rested on the notion of limited production, shown by the National Industrial Recovery Act.
The government focused on rebuilding the non-banking sectors of the economy, including agriculture and housing.
NRA was established to decrease competition in business and increase wages to better workers' lives.
Reform programs involved legislation that avoided another depression and insured citizens against economic disasters.
The Soil Conservation Act was a law mandating proper soil maintenance to avoid another Dust Bowl.
FDR established a bank holiday and shut them down for a while to let them recover and then signed the Emergency Banking Act.