Injury prevention & control (RISK factors (Behavioural determinants…
Injury prevention & control
Definition: Injuries include intentional
harm such as suicide and unintentional harm such as falls, poisonings and drowning, burns, scalds and transport related injuries. Types of injuries like poisonings in children, drowning or near drowning, falls in children and falls in older people.
Reasons why NHPA?
Injury was projected to be responsible for about seven per cent of the burden of disease in disability adjusted life years (DALY) in Australia in 2010.
Injury is the main cause of death for people under the age of 45.
Most injury cases are considered to be preventable.
physical activity. People participating in contact sports may be at an increased risk for sport-related injuries.
Risk-taking behaviour. Men are more likely than women to take risks and therefore have higher rates of injury.
alcohol use. People affected by alcohol often take unnecessary risks that can result in higher rates of injury, such as drink driving or swimming while intoxicated.
Age can be a significant risk factor for a range of injuries. For example, the loss of bone mass in older people can make them more likely to sustain fractures compared to a young person. Children may not understand warnings on cleaning agents and other chemicals, which can increase the risk of accidental poisoning.
Body shape and size can also influence the types of injury people are likely to sustain. For example, the body shape and size of an infant makes them more likely to drown as their heads are large compared with the rest of their body, making it difficult for them to lift their head out of the water.
Higher levels of testosterone in males is a contributing factor to the higher levels of risk-taking such as speeding while driving, alcohol and drug misuse, and acts of aggression, all of which contribute to higher rates of injuries among males.
Socioeconomic status. Those of lower socioeconomic status are more likely to be injured. This may be a result of lower levels of education, the types of occupations carried out or lack of financial resources to ensure cars are in safe working order.
social exclusion and social isolation. Those who are socially excluded and isolated may not have people to talk to when required. This can increase the risk of mental health issues and injuries from self-harm.
work environment. Aspects of the work environment can contribute to the risk of injuries. Machinery associated with farming and mining are examples of causes of such injuries.
housing. Unsafe housing can increase the risk of falls and injuries.
access to recreation facilities. Access to bodies of water may increase the risk of drowning. This includes beaches, rivers, lakes, dams and swimming pools.
3 direct cost
Hospital/rehabilitation costs (Individual & Community)
Ambulance (Individual & Community)
Medication (Individual & Community)
3 indirect costs
Long term care (Individual & Community)
Loss of productivity (Community)
Welfare payments (Community)
3 intangible costs
Pain and suffering (Individual)
Anxiety about adjusting to changed lifestyle (Individual)
Family grief (Community)