(Welch, et al. 2009) Sing Up, As part of a wider evaluation of a national, Government-sponsored music education intiative for Primary-aged children in England ('Sing Up'), opportunity was taken by the authors, at the request of the funders, to assess any possible Sing91lc. Sing Up tested based on two welk-known songs to create a 'normalised singing score', and their written responses to a specially-designed questionnaire that included 15 statements related to children's sense of being socially included. The 15 statements were based on a variety of sources to investivate different facets of children's social self-concept. These embraced statements related to self-esteem (Fitts, 1964; Rosenberg, 1989; Thornberry et al., 1994), self-efficacy (Nowicki and Strickland, 1973; Nowicki and Walker, 1973; Vispoel, 1994), as well as statements concerning children's sense of being socially integrated (Fitts, 1964; Haeberlin et al., 1989; Achenbach, 1991). Collectively, these 15 statements are interpreted as being related to children's social concept, hence the labeling here as sense of self and of being socially included. Across the dataset of n=4,495 responses, there were significant differences in terms of sex, FF(12,4387)=3.57, P<.0001. Overall, girls had a stronger sense of social inclusion than boys (p<.0001). Although no other variables demonstrated significant differences within the overall dataset, there were significant differences related to normalised singing scores. Data analyses suggested that the higher the normalized singing development rating, the more positive the child's self-concept and sense of being socially included, irrespective of singer age, sex and ethnicity. This is also illustrated in the data for participants in the Chorister Outreach Programme (COP), F(2,776)=.41, P=.001). There is evidence of a positive relationship between increased increasing skill and a greateer sense of self and of being soically included, whether or not children had participated in the Sing Up programme, appears to be related positively to self-concept. In the before-after, there was a tendency for increases in perceived social inclusion over time to be correlated longitudinally in these pupils with increases in ratings of singing ability.
Self-esteem, self-efficacy, socially integrated.
(Pearce, et al., 2016)Here we examine the social bonding outcomes of naturalistic singing behaviour in a European university Fraternity composed of exclusive “Cliques”: recognised sub-groups of 5–20 friends who adopt a special name and identity. Singing occurs frequently in this Fraternity, both “competitively” (contests between Cliques) and “cooperatively” (multiple Cliques singing together). Both situations were recreated experimentally in order to explore how competitive and cooperative singing affects feelings of closeness towards others. Participants were assigned to teams of four and were asked to sing together with another team either from the same Clique or from a different Clique. Participants (N = 88) felt significantly closer to teams from different Cliques after singing with them compared to before, regardless of whether they cooperated with (singing loudly together) or competed against (trying to singing louder than) the other team. In contrast, participants reported reduced closeness with other teams from their own Clique after competing with them. These results indicate that group singing can increase closeness to less familiar individuals regardless of whether they share a common motivation, but that singing competitively may reduce closeness within a very tight-knit group.
(Pearce, et al., 2016) Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N = 84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N = 51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
(Tiszai, 2010) Social isolation, inequality and poverty are frequently understood as secondary consequences of different disabilities. People with severe disabilities usually experience various direct and indirect forms of social exclusion that also affect their family-members. Their participation is extremely challenging since it seems difficult to involve them in any kind of social activity. The present article describes the methodology of disability-awareness workshops in which musicians with severe disabilities play together with other workshop participants. The aim of these workshops is to involve participants without disabilities in fruitful mutual cooperation with adults with severe disabilities. It is essential to prepare people when they first meet individuals with severe disabilities. During the workshops participants are prepared for the encounter as it is crucial to overcome the embarrassment that many experience when meeting people with disabilities. The Consonante Method allows individuals with limited intellectual and motor skills as well as people without previous musical training to experience the joy of active participation in a music performance. Shared music can be a platform for socialization through a joyful activity. The community building power of music allows participants to experience joy, community, equality and mutuality. These well-prepared encounters promote mutual understanding and thus can serve as a positive model for inclusion.
(from Rinta et al., 2011) A number of projects that have used music as a tool to reduce prejudice and to promote inclusion have been recorded over the past decade. For example, in Spain, festivals with music students performing to the public have been used in promoting feelings of social inclusion and reducing the absenteeism of Roma children from school (Almau, 2005). The project concluded that music can easily be used as a tool to tackle social exclusion and educational disadvantage. However, none of the studies have specifically looked at potential connections between participants’ musical backgrounds from before the start of their programmes and their feelings of social inclusion.
(Almau, 2005) Reducing absences and motivating learning--these are the two aims of the Motivational Strategies development programme at Ramiro Solans School in Zaragoza. Music and other art forms are the motive forces. Three years after its start, its achievements are impressive. Teachers use lots of activities to attract chidlren poor background. Music is the key of the activities, and it included songs and dance, computers, fames and festivals. They had festival each month, and parents were invited to get involved in the school. In Spain, festivals comprising public music student performances have been used for promoting inclusion and reducing the absenteeism of Roma children.
(Odena, 2007) focusing on using music education to reduce prejudice and promote inclusion. nine young music teachers were interviewed, interwees were selected as a 'maximum variation'. It focus on the issue of young music teachers working together regardless of the context. Using a focus group format way to interview. 'singing is as idela to engage young children. compared with just listening or watch, children love practical activities which they could get involved in. And a third and final stage in which After extended contact, individuals begin to think of themselves as part of a redefined new larger group. Most music education activities recalled by participants would fall within the firlst stage. '[Music] is a superb tool for encouraging children to work together, I think they get so much out of it and I think we totally understimate what children can do with music, ...I've got to the stage now where I can see children not being aware of their cultural background and if you give them a task to do that involves percussion instruments and music and movement, they will throw themselves into it wholeheartedly and are quite prepared to work with other people in doing that' p.16) -from a music teacher.
然而在中国的教育背景下，音乐课的核心目的是帮助学生培养美，审美。这个主要功能让加强社会融合的功能体现不突出。 然而审美是一个抽象的概念，为了审美，第一步就是要把学生吸引进来。 如果只是单纯的为了审美而审美，那音乐的其他功能就被缩减了很多。
(Odena, 2007) music therapy: some studies deal with clinical applications, for instance to reduce anxiety in hospitals, while other studies explore the use of sound and music as therapy to develop the social and communication skills of children, e.g. children on the Autistic Spectrum (e.g. Bunt, 2006-music therapy; Welch et al ., 2001-provide music to special education).
a recent study in a deprived area of Cork, UK, explored the impact of a wide music education project on the feelings of social inclusion exhibited by local residents (Minguella and Buchanan, 2009). -Ireland
(Rinta et al., 2011) The current study (see footnote 1) explored the connections between children’s musical backgrounds and their feelings of social inclusion, as well as developed and tested an instrument for assessing social inclusion with children. Data were gathered with 110 8-11year-old children in the UK and Finland (two schools in UK, two schools in Finland). by questionnaires. These included: integration (5
items for social inclusion and 4 for emotional inclusion); belongingness (3 items); loneliness (4 items); participation (5 items); contentment (2 items); and motivation (3 items) (Asher and Wheeler, 1985; Haerbelin et al., 1989; Leary et al, 2005; Odena, 2007; Secker et al., 2009).Statistical analysis was carried out on the social inclusion instrument in order to assess its reliability, validity and effectiveness. Statistical analysis was also conducted on potential connections between the children’s musical background factors and their feelings of social inclusion. The results indicated that the new instrument can be used in educational and clinical settings with children when assessing their feelings of social inclusion. In addition, children felt more socially included when they played a musical instrument or sang with their family or friends. The author suggested that there is no significant connections recorded between musical engagement and background per se and feelings of social inclusion. The author suggested that the musical engagement and background in musical activities may not facilitate feelings of social inclusion. rather, group music activities appear to be of more important in this regard.
(Rinta et al., 2011)
social integration: ‘I have lots of friends in school.’
‘I have lots of friends outside school.’
‘Saying goodbye to friends is hard if I know I will not see them for a while.’
‘I can be sure my friends will take my side if I have an argument.’
‘I feel I belong in my class at school.’ (Haerbelin et al.,
emotional inclusion: ‘It is important for me to have friends.’
‘It is important for me that other children like me.’
‘I feel left out of things at school.’
‘My friends always give me help if I need it.’Haerbelin et al., 1989
belongingness: ‘I feel I belong to my
‘Other children are pleased for me to
join their games.’
‘I would feel sad if I had to leave my school.’Leary et al., 2005
Loneliness: ‘I am never lonely.’
‘It is important to me to have friends I can turn to at any time.’
‘I get asked to take part in activities out of school.’
‘I get along well with children in my
class.’Asher and Wheeler,
participation: ‘I like spending time
on my own.’
‘Other children ask
me to play with
‘I prefer to be on my
own and not with
‘I prefer doing
schoolwork on my
own, not in a group.’
‘I like doing activities
that involve lots of
children.’ Odena, 2007
Contentment : ‘The children in my
class are very
‘Other children like
me just the way I
am.’Dollase and Koch,
Motivation: ‘I like going to
‘I like to see my
‘It is more important
to have a few close
friends than trying to
be friends with
everybody.’ Baumeister et al.,
2005; and Koch,
2002; Twenge et al.,
(from Rinta et al., 2011) a recent national study of approxiamately 2,000 young children in the UK showed that those who were relatively more skilled and developed in their musical understanding and performance were also statistically highly likely to report themselves as being more socially included. (Welch et al., 2009).