Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring in Aquaculture (References …
Environmental Impact Assessment and Monitoring in Aquaculture
:warning: Disease Outbreaks
Due to the climate changes , disease outbreaks such as White Spot disease occured
The Pitas Aquaculture Project in Sabah
In 2015, The EIA for the proposal of the project was rejected but they still claimed that the project was approved and continue to do to do the project.
It is illegal from the start as it is not comply to the state laws.
The project causes significant depleted resources and affected the livelihood of subsistence farmers and fisherman in the area.
Major Shrimp Production
Kerpan Shrimp Farm by Blue Archipelago Bhd in Kedah
Harvest about 500 tonnes, with revenue of about 7.5 million
Pitas Aquaculture Project by Inno Fisheries Sdn Bhd
2300 acres are used for the project.
Shrimp farm project in Merchang, Marang Terengganu by Ocean Aquatic Marine and China based Zhanjiang Guolian Aquatic Products (2012)
The companies invested for about RM1.8billion and about 1090 ha are used for the project.
Ehiagbonare, J. E., & Ogundiran, Y. O. (2010). Physico-chemical analysis of fish pond waters in Okada and its environs, Nigeria.
African Journal of Biotechnology
Keremah, R. I., Davies, O. A., & Abezi, I. D. (2014). Physico-Chemical Analysis of Fish Pond Water in
Freshwater Areas of Bayelsa State, Nigeria.
Greener Journal of Biological Sciences
Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) (2006).
Handbook of Fisheries and Aquaculture
. New Delhi: Directorate of Information and Publications of Agriculture.
Ekubo, A. A., & Abowei, J. F. N. (2011). Review of some
water quality management principles in culture fisheries,
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and
Kane, S., Qarri, F., Lazo, P., & Bekteshi, L. (2010). The effect of physico-chemical parameters and nutrients on fish growth in Narta Lagoon, Albania.
Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design
:star: Water Quality
Water component which must be present to facilitate optimum growth of aquatic organisms (Ehiagbonare & Ogundiran, 2010).
Affects metabolism and physiological
processes of fish (ICAR, 2006)
Important indicator of the water quality
and the extent of pollution in the watershed areas
Fish have an average blood pH of 7.4 (Ekubo & Abowei, 2011)
pH between 7 to 8.5 is ideal for biological
productivity (Ekubo & Abowei, 2011)
pH of less than 4.0 or greater than 11.0 is almost certain leading to death (Ekubo & Abowei, 2011)
pH ranging from 4.0 to 6.5 and 9.0 to 11.0 can lead to stress (Ekubo & Abowei, 2011)
High temperature leads water holding less oxygen (Keremah
Influences fish spawn, growth of aquatic vegetation and biological oxygen demand in ponds (Keremah
Plants and animals use more oxygen due to increased
Result in less available oxygen for fish in water (Keremah