Chapter 8: Ecology of the Peer Group (8-1 The Peer Group as a Socializing…
Chapter 8: Ecology of the Peer Group
8-1 The Peer Group as a Socializing Agent
Peers: Individuals who are of approximately the same gender, age, and social status, and who share interests.
8-1A The significane of peers to human development. Satisify basic need. Belonging, social interaction, develop a sense of self and identity.
Sense of Self: self-concept. personal identity. Self-esteem.
8-1B Parent vs Peer Influence
parents influence child-peer relationships by influencing with whom their children interact.
8-2 The Peer group's Influence on Psychological Development: Emotions
peer groups have certain norms for behavior. Children learn to compete for status in the peer group by compliance with group norms and creation of group norms.
8-3 Social Competence and Conformity
Social Competence: behavior informed by an understanding of others' feelings and intentions, the ability to respond appropriately, and knowledge of the consequences of one's actions.
Sitiation: apparent in ambiguous situations where children are unsure bout what they should do are or are supposed to do.
Personal Values: between 6-9th graders exhibit the most conforming behavior. Personal values do affect one's likelihood of conforming to the peer group.
8-4 Peer Group's influence on Cognitive Development
Social Cognition. Conceptions and reasoning about people, the self, relations between people, social groups' roles and rules, and the relation of such conceptions to social behavior.
Assuptive reality: a theiry about reality assumed to be true without examining or evaluating contradictory data.
Cognitive conceit: Elkind's term for children in Piaget's stage of concrete operations who put too much faith in their reasoning ability and cleverness.
Reality testing: Testing assumptions againts facts
Imaginary audience: the belies that others area as concerned with one's behavior and appearance as one is oneself.
8-5 Peer Group Socializing Mechanisms
Reinforcement, Modeling, Punishment, Apprenticeship
Cliques: friends who view themselves as mutually connected and do things together. Crowds: loosely organized reference groups of cliques
8-6 Macrosystems Influences on the Peer Group: Developmental Tasks
Getting along with others. Learn concepts like give and take. The ability to empathize on an emotional then behavioral level.
Developing morals (what is right and wrong) and Values (determining what is worthwhile) Children come to know what is and is not acceptable behavior.
Rules as a Moral Component. Involves rule formulation, rule following, cooperation, limit setting, division of roles, and territorality:
Types of Morality: Morality of constraint-behavior based on respect for persons in authority. Morality of cooperation: behavior based on mutual understanding between equals.
Learning appropriate sociocultural roles. Independence and Interdependence. In the peer group children receive feedback about their behavior and skills.
Sex and Gender Roles: What is culturally acceptable and admirable for boys and girls. Peer pressure for appropriate gender-type play has been observed to begin as early as age 2. Peer group is often the imparter of information about sexuality. Children and adolescents share their knowledge with one another.
Achieving Personal Independence and Identity. Social Support: resources provided by others in times of need.
8-7 Chronosystem Influences on the Peer Group: Play/Activities
the significance and development of play. Behavior that is enjoyed for its own sake.
Solitary, Onlooker, Parallel, Associative, Cooperative, Initiative, Exploratory, Testing, Model-building
Types of play at different stages.
8-8 Peer Group Interactions
Development of Friendship
8-9 Peer Group Aceptance/Neglect/Rejection
Sociometry : techniques used to measure patterns of acceptance, neglect, and rejection among members of a group.
Improving Children Social Skills: Model, Participate, Cooperate, Communicate, Validate and Support.
Peer Group Dynamics and Social Hierarchies. Clique Inclusion and Exclusion. Clique Inclusionary Techinques: how one pbecomes part of the "in" group and gain status within it.power plays and fake apologies. Queen Bees and Wannabes Clique Exclusionary Technies. teasing, picking on, being mean to. strenghtens the clique.
Bullies and Victims: bullying is aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. It occurs repeatedly over time in an unbalanced relationship of power or strength. It can occur in many forms. physical violence, teasing and name-calling, intimidation, and social exclusion.
8-11 Antisocial Behavior Gangs
a gang is a group of people who form an alliance for a common purpose and engage in unlawful or criminal activity.
Prosocial Behavior: Peer Collaboration, Tutoring, and Counseling.
8-13 Mesosystem Influences on the Peer Group Adult-Child Interaction.
Adult Structured Peer Groups. Adult Mediated Group Interaction. Adult Leadership StylesCollaborative leadership: working together and sharing responsibility for a task.. Team Sports