The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching
The Oral Approach and Situational
Learner roles, Teacher's role,
The role of instructional materials
The teacher is required to be a skillful manipulator,
using questions, commands, and other cues to elicit correct sentences from the learners.
In the initial stages , the learner is required simply to listen
and repeat what the teacher says and to respond to questions and commands
Later, more active participation is encouraged.
This includes learners initiating responses and asking each other
questions, although teacher-controlled introduction and practice of new language is stressed throughout
The textbook contains tightly organized lessons planned
around different grammatical structures.
the textbook should be used "only as a guide to the learning process. The teacher is expected to be the master of this textbook"
Types of learning and teaching activities
presents new sentence pattterns and a drill -based manner of practicing them
almost all the vocabulary and structures taught in the first four or five years and even later can be placed in situations in which the meaning is quite clear.
By situation means the use of concrete objects, pictures, and
realia, which together with actions and gestures can be used to demonstrate the meanings of new language items.
The meaning of new words is made clear visually (with objects, pictures, action and mime).
The form of new words and sentence patterns is demonstrated with examples and not through grammatical explanation or description
The practice techniques consist of guided repetition and substitution activities, including chorus repetition, dictation, drills,
and controlled oral-based reading and writing tasks
Other oral-practice techniques are sometimes used,
including pair practice and group work.
structures are always taught within sentences, and vocabulary is chosen according to how well it enables sentence patterns to be taught.
situation refers to the manner of presenting and practicing sentence patterns
to teach a practical command of the four basic skills of language
Automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns is fundamental to reading and writing skills, and this is achieved
through speech work
Oral composition can be a very valuable exercise
Theory of learning
Extending structures and voca bulary to new situations
takes place by generalization.
The learner is expected to apply the language learned in a classroom to situations outside the classroom
at any level aim to move from controlled to freer practice of structures and from oral use of sentence patterns to their automatic use in speech, reading, and writing.
revision ( to prepare for new work if necessary)
presentation of new structures or vocabulary
oral practice (drilling)
5 . reading of material on the new structure, or written exercises
Theory of language.
The theory that knowledge of structures must be linked to situations in which they could be used gave Situational Language Teaching one of its distinctive features.
Situational Language Teaching (SLT)
includes the StructuaI- Situatianal and Oral approaches
Speech was regarded as the basis of language, and structure was viewed as being at the heart of speaking ability.
structures must be linked to situations in which they could be used gave Situational Language Teaching one of its distinctive features
Oral Approach was the accepted British approach
to English language teaching by the 1950s
Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form
The target language is the language of the classroom.
New language points are introduced and practlced situationally
Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure that an essential general service vocabulary is covered
Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones
Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexical and grammatical basis is established.