emotion is related to trainning. :red_flag: (Maroti et al., 2013) Numerous studies found evidence that music training can enhance cognitive abilities both for children and adults. However, no evidence was found yet, whether music training can enhance abilities in emotion perception. I tested 12 8-9 year-old children (9 boys and 3 girls) on emotion perception in visual and musical contexts. Denographic information was collected from parents in a form of a questionnaire including their age, ethnicity, child's and parents' first language, parents' level of education, annual family income, parents' marital status, child's and parents' musical history, child's primary out-of-school activity, child's frequency of music listening and the style of music the child listens the most. Children were asked to fill out a music questionnaire after each music listening. The questionnaire consisted a list of 11 words that described different feelings and emotions. After they fully understood the words, they had to indicate to what extent they perceived them in the music they just heard. Children were asked to use a scale to indicate how much they perceived each emotion while they were listening to the music. All the three musical excepts were presented on the piano. (critical: the results might be different if use human voice. as children get more sense of the human voice, Using nine different categoies might be a changelleng for some children). Another task is visuak task. the task consisted of 11 color photos of adult people. Each photo expressed one emotion among the 11 emotions from the word-list on the music quesitionnaire. (critical; 11 emotions is huge for children) . The tests did not show significant difference between the musically trained and non-trained group neither in visual nor in musical context, however, when emotion scores were analyzed separately for each piece of music, musically trained children's responses reflected stereotypical modes of approaching emotional meanings in music, moreover, musically trained children's judgments were more uniform as there was less variability between their responses compared to the responses of non-trained children, which can be attributed to the common expressive rules whereby children learn to convey emotions through music during their music training.
The finding of (Maroti et al., 2013) is opposite with Sing Up data. :red_flag: who did not find significant difference between trained and untrained children. Lehmann et al., (2007) support Maroti et al. they thought as a result of music training, musicians learn expressive performance rules, whereby emotions are conveyed through music, such as how to articulate a melody or change loudness, and these strategies are quite uniform in the Western music education. Actually, two studies did the same things in two way. Children might could tell the different emotion, but it did not mean that they can express emotion in music or singing. (critical, the author said that the small number of sample size was a serious limitation of the study.)
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