Cognitive-Development Theory, Piaget (Basic Assumptions (Essential factors…
Cognitive-Development Theory, Piaget
Constructivist nature of intelligence
knowing and the actions of intelligence are the same process that changes through interactions with/adaptations to the environment
Knowledge is knowing, and it is a process created by the activity of the learner
Knowing comes from learner transforming reality by interacting with it
Intelligience and biologica l organisms constantly interact with the environment and construct structurses to adapt to the environment
Investigation is through observation and experimentation
Essential factors in cognitive development
interaction between person and world leads to new knowledge
Mat of nervous sytem permits the child to benefit from physcial experince.
permits cognitive development to procedure in an coherent and organized way
interactions with others causes individual to question their beliefs
Psychological nature of logical thinking
psychological structure of logical thinking
operations are the basic unit of logical thinking; cognitive structures taht govern logical reasoning
Actions that are internalized and coordinated into systems
role of possibility and necessity in understanding events
as child develops through levels I-III, she understand s that some options are not possible and in other cases other options are possible than her own belief or choice
role of meaning
Knowledge involves inference; meaning of an object includes actions involved with it; logic begins when a child can anticipate relation between actions.
Fundamental processes of interactions with the environment
Equilibration--a dynamic process that regulates behavior, Disequilibirum is cognitive conflict, learner has two incompativle views.
between assimilation and accomodation
between schems or subsystems
Between whole and its parts
Assimlation and Accomodation occur together
Accommodation--internal structures adapt to particular characteristics of the object being learned; also when learner has to reorganize a former way of thinking because actual situation proves former way incorrect
Assimilaition--integration of external element (an object or event) into the sensorimotor or conceptual scheme of the learner
Filtering stimulus through an action structure
Piaget's theory in the classroom
During childhood, logical thinking is developed not received. Thought patterns undergo qualitative changes
Active inquiry is best. Hard in an industrial/technical society.
Research method, action,
especially important for math
introduce liberal arts and science with experimental procesures.
Collaboration and interchange between learners
Activities that encourage exploration meed to be coordinated with their development: autonomy, decentering of viewpoint; alertness curiosity, initiative, confidence.
Theory addresses educational issues
Learner characteristics: differences, readiness and motivation
Cognitive processes: how-to-learn skills; transfer of learning; problem solving
Implications for assessment--student rationale for knowing what they know; the theory could help schools avoid measurable material that ignores development of logic.
Social context, peer learning--teacher creates the situation.
Piaget does not address factual content, but thinking and reasoning.