Earth and Environmental Science
Earth and Environmental Science
Mining and using minerals
There is surface and underground mining which both are mined using different methods
Mining provides people with many resources but gives the environment a negative empact
metal comes from mining
Gemstones which are used for jewerly comes from mining
What are minerals?
All have a specific chemical composition
Minerals are inorganic meaning they did not come from a living organism
A mineral is a crystalline solid formed through natural process
Identification of minerals
Color, Streak, Luster, Density, Hardness, Cleavage and Fracture
Minerologist identify minerals using the following
Formation of minerals
Minerals can form from Magma and lava
When minerals form from magma it forms slowly and crystals from too
When minerals form from lava it forms quickly and there are very small crystals
Minerals can also form from solutions
Made through lithification
Hardening of layers of loose sediment rock
Sedimentary rock has fossils
Comes from the cooling of lava or magma
Lava-molten rock the reached the surface
Magma- Magma deep in the earth
Metamorphism- takes igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rock and they are changed by heat or pressure
Technology developed during WW2 gave the data to recognize seafloor spreading
Bathymetric maps revealed high mountain ranges and deep trenches
Magnetic polarity stripes give clues as to seafloor ages and the importance of mid-ocean ridges in the creation of oceanic crust.
Seafloor spreading processes create new oceanic crust at mid-ocean ridges and destroy older crust at deep sea trenches.
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Plates interact at three different types of plate boundaries, divergent, convergent and transform fault boundaries, which are where most of the Earth’s geologic activity takes place
divergent plate boundary
A location where two lithospheric plates spread apart.
transform plate boundary
The type of plate boundary where two plates slide past one another.
doesnt create nor destroy. usually makes earth quakes
convergent plate boundary
A location where two lithospheric plates come together
Driven by mantle convection, the plates of lithosphere move around Earth’s surface. New oceanic crust forms at the ridge and pushes the older seafloor away from the ridge horizontally.
Mantle convection-creeping motion of Earth's mantle caused by convection currents carrying heat to the surface
These processes acting over long periods of time are responsible for the geographic features we see.
Theory that states the contients move on the earths surface
The continents were once togeether as a single super continent called Pangea
A volcanic eruption that releases large amounts of gas, so that magma is violently thrown up into the air.
A relatively gentle, non-explosive volcanic eruption.
Volcanic eruptions can be non-explosive or explosive depending on the viscosity of the magma
The "thickness" or "stickiness" of a liquid. The more viscous a liquid is, the harder it will be for the liquid to flow.
Some signs that a volcano may soon erupt include earthquakes, surface bulging, gases emitted as well as other changes that can be monitored by scientists.
Volcanoes like those that form the islands of Hawaii form over areas called hot spots
Volcanoes form when magma reaches the Earth's surface.
Volcanoes occur most often along plate boundaries.
Types of Volcanoes
Composite cones, shield volcanoes, cinder cones and supervolcanoes are some of the types of volcanoes formed.
Composite cones are tall, cone shaped volcanoes that produce explosive eruptions.
Shield volcanoes form very large, gently sloped volcanoes with a wide base.
Cinder cones are the smallest volcanic landform. They are formed from accumulation of many small fragments of ejected material.
A caldera forms when an explosive eruption leaves a large crater when the mountain blows apart.
Supervolcanoes are tremendously devastating types of volcanoes that could destroy large areas when they erupt.
What is Earth science?
Earth Science and Its Branches
Climatology and Meteorology
Meteorology includes the study of weather patterns, clouds, hurricanes, and tornadoes.
Climatologists and other atmospheric scientists study the whole atmosphere, which is a thin layer of gas that surrounds the Earth
the study of everything in the ocean environment
Astronomers use resources on the Earth to study physical things beyond the Earth
the study of the solid matter that makes up Earth