3.05 New Ways of Thinking (Socialist Alternative (Karl Marx (Class…
3.05 New Ways of Thinking
Laws and policies judged by how useful they are and not by tradition
Goal of Gov to achieve "greatest happiness of the greatest number"
reform of England's harsh prison system
criminals should be trained to be useful members of society
John Stuart Mill
sometimes get involved in economy to help the poor and powerless
intrests of working class should be represented in Parliament
gov.-supported schools for the poor
giving women the right to vote
oppression of women was:
"wrong in itself"
wasted the talents of half the human race
some philosophers and economists rejected capitalism altogether
society radically reorganized to benefit the poor and working classes
capitalism harmed society by encouraging gap between rich and poor
40 mil people's income was dictated by less than 1/8 of the pop.
gov. controls property and distribution of income
gov. rep. people
own and manage the means of production:
workers would not be mistreated or live terrible lives
company owner only motivated by profit
Robert Owen (Utopian Socialist)
successful businessman from wales
distressed by working and living conditions
bought New Lanark textile mills in Scotland
prohibited labor for children under 10
set up schools for the young
built better housing for mill workers
undertook social experiment based on socialist ideals of cooperation and group effort
suppose to be perfect Utopian society
residents quarreled over how things should be run
experiment failed after few years
Karl Marx (Class Struggle)
believed that religion only dulled senses to the misery and oppression of the poor
wrote articles that criticized the gov.
condemned the powerful
called for overthrow of capitalists and business owners
When revolutions were breaking out across Europe he and Friedrich Engels published The Communist Manifesto
every aspect of a society is shaped by economic system
wealth of a society would be shared by all
predicted a war between the bourgeoisie and proletariat
Bourgeoisie were factory owners, bankers, merchants, and ruling classes
Proletariat were "working men of all countries"
"Let the ruling class tremble" "The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains"
Marx's Das Kapital
fled to London after the failed revolution
predicted that the large working class will overthrow the smaller ruling class
Darwin and Natural Selection
went to South America
species with useful traits live longer and have more offspring
offset religious leader b/c if evolution then where God?
"survival of the fittest" kinda