Theories motivation, commitment engagement and organisation practice…
Theories motivation, commitment engagement and organisation practice
Performance link % Organisation practice
induction . Reed survey 4% left
Sodastream - focus groups - outcomes . positive meetings, strength based approach - use strengths to alloc tasks.
Not only what but how - Purcell (sustainability)
Semco set bottom up goals - Semler 1993
Someone needs to combine / manage to resolve conflicts
Difficulties manage performance
interdependencies / long term goals / focus on targets / contribution to strategy / who goal sets? / difficult to set some goals / multi rater but costly / link to pay or development? / rater bias
Arup - has publicised its global employment benefit package
Debate on whether PM improves performance. fulham hazard 2004
employee view is negative. cause and effect. costs might outweigh benefits - might suit some orgs. focus on development
john lewis - not pay leaders but leaders in overall benefit package. Reward not just promotion e.g. salesperson
SODASTREAM - strengths , positive experience PM. value good performance
2003 Purcell et al - Black box
AMO + engagement commitment satisfaction = AMOSCE
Ability Motivation Opportunity. Need to unlock box
high performance HRM + positive org outcome
1943 Maslow hierarchy of needs
Human survival - safety - belonging - esteem - achieve most you can
1969 Alderfer - human need
Existence (safety) - Relatedness (social) - Growth. Doesn't rank, happen anytime, esp if frustrated.
1968 Hertzberg 2 factor
motivators (challenge work, recognition, decision making) and hygiene factors (security, salary) - impact on complaints
McClelland 1982 - Acquired needs
Achievement, affiliation (liked), power
Locke1968 - goal setting
adv - incentivise, feedback. Dis - goal conflict, risky behaviour, relies on development, job satisfaction no evidence
COGNITIVE / EXPECTANCY based
1964 Vroom - expectancy
conscious choice on alternatives / money can be demotivating rewards unfair. impact on PRP etc.
Expectancy - individuals belief (efficacy), goal difficulty, control over performance
Valence - outcomes valued - rewards. -
perception effort - performance
instrumentality - performance leads outcomes
1993 bandura - Self efficacy
Feedback affects performance outcomes, can view others experience,
2000 Barber bretz / 2006 Kuvas / 2001 Deci
money important factor deciding job and leaving (more detailed - what makes them look for another job is poor management). negative impact on performance and intrinsic motivators. Cameron 2001 / Fang Gerhart 2012 - dispute reward negative impact.
model commitment - emotional attach (affective - most powerful), moral obligation (normative), choices to leave (continuous)
1976 Locke, 1980 Hackman &Oldham - Job satisfaction
no direct relationship to performance, but fewer complaints. characteristics - skill, variety, task, feedback
2007 Latham - there is a link money / commitment / performance
employees motivated also by different factors
Armstrong Baron 2005
Effective management leads to high performance . shared understanding business needs.
demotivating - performance, sick, complaints,
set goals, understand abilities, coach
issues with lack feedback
abdication , training
difficult measure long term complex tasks, also team working.
Impact on REWARD / money (extrinsic motivators)
Barber Bretz 2000 - money leads them to other orgs, management makes them think in first place
Deci 2001 - risky to intrinsic motivation - purpose. Cameron 2001 - not harmful
Latham 2007 - motivatied by different rewards. e.g. parents might want more flex working
rational thinking / micro economics - money
STRATEGIC REWARDS - PRP - business objs, personal aspiration, expectations higher
Marchington 2005 - EVP - TOTAL rewards - intrinsic, job design - purpose , challenge, strength, flexibility, growth, voice . ISSUES - management buy-in, range of choices, pleasing everyone
Meyer 2002 - Commitment and job satisfaction
affective - emotional attach to org, normative - moral obligation, continuous - lack of choice.
Haines 2012 - Depends if it suits your organisation
Furnham Hazard 2004 - Doesn't improve performance
key role HR to improve capability
Social and behavioural - cultural
Others - Jamrog 2008 - understand abilities and coach. McClean Collins 2011 - investment leads to discretionary effort.
link with wellbeing CIPD 2012
person fit, pressures, work life, manager support, peers - result in transactional engagement. link both ways?
Schaufelli 2004 - burnout vs engagement
1990s Kahn - measured emotional (open systems)
Define - organising members to their work roles, express themselves physically (energies) emotionally (tie to org) cognitively (leaders and working enviro) role performance.
Emotional and transactional
task and organisation?
going beyond role, helping others or deviant, resignation
maccleod 2009 - relationship to performance, turnover, sick absence compared to competitors
Saks 2006 - different to commitment, not just attitude but attentive to work and role performance - a flow?
how much is it to do with personalty? more research needed. Job related? Measures - feeling a the time of survey. Type / clarify of questions? Complement other strategies - PM, development etc.
social exchange theory - managers key in building trust, reciprocity, openness,
holbech / matthews 2012 - 4 drivers - connection with org, communication both ways, management style, purpose of work/autonomy
Engagement and org practice
Nampak - CEO change culture, accountability, empower, learning, communication, visibility, feedback ,
birmingham council - engagement champions. bottom up but clear leadership
Drivers - Diversity , inclusive, strengths, flex management, csr
MACE - good engagement - focus work/life knowledge sharing, csr. recruit to values - training, communications, volunteering.
business case CIPD 2010
3 measures - extent and frequency - emotional (positive feelings), intellectual (improve work process), social (relationship colleagues etc.
improve performance, retention, innovation , discretionary effort.
public - more strongly but less frequently engaged than private. latter more engaged emotionally
more engaged - older, women, flexible, managers
rate manager more than senior manager
HR has less impact on engagement
Work Enviro - ADV flexibility, comfort, techno, also facilitate customer, future proof, costing. DISADV - absence, turnover, productivity, engagement. hot-desking?
surveys / focus groups
data - turnover, grievance
what gets measured gets attention