The Volcanic Eruption of Mount Pinatubo (When? (June 15 1991: The initial…
The Volcanic Eruption of Mount Pinatubo
June 15 1991: The initial explosion and eruption, 5 cubic km or material was erupted with volcanic ash that rose up to 35 km up the sky
June 12 1991: The rise of volcanic ash and gas and some magma from above Mount Pinatubo (The beginning of the eruption)
Early September 1991: Less powerful yet spectacular ash cloud eruptions.
July-October 1992: Lava dome built from the slowly rising magma again.
What happened before the eruption?
This earthquake caused a landslide, some local earthquakes, and an increase in steam emission due to the geothermal activity.
March and April 1991: Magma rose toward the surface from more than 32 kilometers beneath Pinatubo which caused small earthquakes and powerful steam explosions.
July 16, 1990: A magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck about 100 kilometers NE of Mount Pinatubo on the island of Luzon in the Philippines.
The Eruption happened on Mount Pinatubo in Luzon in the Philippines.
The geographical co-ordinates are 15° 8′ 30″ N, 120° 21′ 0″ E
Volcanic ash is blown in all directions over hundreds of KMs, smothering fields and buildings.
Fast flowing volcanic mudflows (lahars) cause sever river bank erosion, undercut bridges etc.
Global cooling caused by ash in the atmosphere of 0.5°C
58,000people had to be evacuated from a 30km radius of the volcano
47 people lost their lives, 300 killed by collapsing roofs and 100 by lava
1.2 million people lost their homes around the volcano and had to migrate to shanty towns in Manila.
Houses and bridges destroyed and needed replacing and Manila airport had to be closed
Heavy rainfall from Typhoon Yunga causes buildings to collapse.
Farmland destroyed by falling ash and pumice, unusable for years, the 1991 harvest was destroyed and 650,000 people lost their jobs
What they did to prevent deaths
75,000 people evacuated up to a radius of 30km. USA air force helicopters helped.
Alert systems put into place to warn of eruption.