The Changing State of Gentrification
Early forms of gentrification were encouraged by the government in an attempt to attract investment into urban environments.
"Governments were aggressive in helping gentrification.." (Hackworth and Smith, 2001,p. 466)
The overall history of gentrification is characterized by three distinguishable waves.
The second was the spread of the practice of gentrification and the resistance of the lower class individuals who were displaced by it.
The third was when gentrification was thought to be ended by the stock market crash of 1987, but housing market indicators turned around in 1993 and further gentrification occurred.
The first was sporadic and led by the the state governments.
"...effective resistance to gentrification has declined as the working class is continually displaced from the inner city, and as the most militant anti-gentrification groups of the 1980s morph into housing service providers." (Hackworth and Smith, 2001, p. 468)
Economic Transition in the City of Paterson, New Jersey
(America’s First Planned Industrial City): Causes, Impacts,
and Urban Policy Implications
"The effects of deindustrialization on traditional industrial cities in USA include
factory closure, urban fiscal crisis, unemployment, poverty, economic despair, and social decay."(Owusu, 2014, p. 1)
Location and resources combined to make Paterson prime for manufacturing and an overall industrial focus in several textiles, such as cotton and silk. When, the economy switched focus away from textile based industry, Paterson experienced high rates of unemployment.
"The economic and
social impacts of economic decentralization in Paterson were
significant. Among other things, it resulted in a high rate
of unemployment, poverty, and urban decay." (Owusu, 2014, p. 5)
Is Gentrification All Bad?
Individuals partaking in the gentrification process have good intentions, but individuals tend to view gentrification as negatively. The gentrifiers typically improve education and business, but the former residents often get displaced.
"Gentrification doesn’t need to be something that one group inflicts on another; often it’s the result of aspirations everybody shares." (Davidson, 2014, para. 4).
Gentrification in Black and White:
The Racial Impact of Public Housing
Demolition in American Cities
Gentrification is the cause for the destruction of public housing policies, and the dismantling of public housing structures results in the displacement of low-income individuals.
"The predominant racial reality of gentrification has been one of White gentrifiers displacing low income Black incumbents." (Goetz, 2010, p.1583)
Bushwick, Brooklyn 2015 - SNL
New stores and activities, to an extent, change the behavior of individuals from the Brooklyn.
They discuss expensive artisanal mayonnaise and parties with painting, wine, and cheese. Irony is used at the end when Kevin Hart's character describes how he shot a man despite also working on his dog walking business.
Greening the Ghetto
Public Policy needs to be enacted in order to positively affect the Bronx.
"So I don't have a problem with developers making money. There's enough precedent out there to show that a sustainable, community-friendly development can still make a fortune."(Carter, 2006)
Grappling With Gentrification As A Middle Class Black American
"...these residents are willing to invest in their communities with the intent of creating a 'economically and politically powerful black neighborhood.'"(Gebreyes, 2015, para. 6)
Gentrifiers of African-American decent have motivations to move into low income neighborhoods for reasons that "...differs significantly from that of their white counterparts." African-American gentrifiers often want to join a community "...with a history of black culture."(Gebreyes, 2015, para. 6)