Ecology of the Mass Media (Influence of Mass Media (Cognitive Development…
Ecology of the Mass Media
Dangers of Technology
Pornography: 12 step program.
Two questions: 1. Does the use of various technologies invite or impede the constant companionship of the holy ghost? Does the time you spend you use technology enlarge or restrict your capacity to serve and love in meaningful ways.
Socialization Outcomes of Screen Media
Adults can develop strategies to mediate children's television viewing according to their values and their children's cognitive developmental level.
Arranging family activities other than television viewing.
Viewing television with their children and discussing the programs.
Checking ratings and evaluating what kinds of programs may be viewed.
Controlling the number of hours of television exposure.
Influence of Adult Coviewing: Parents can mediate the amount and level of attention given to TV by their children by being the primary socializers in their children's frames of reference.
Selective Attention: Choosing stimuli from one's environment to notice, observe, and consider. :star:
Influence of Mass Media
Devices and Games
Main concern: interactive games show a prevalence of aggression, sex, and gender-role stereotyping, as well as the rule-bound logic designed by the programmers.
Electronic play may serve as a distraction from the developmental task of developing a sense of self, which involves recognizing that they are separate beings.
increasing self-efficacy because children are learning how to independently use media.
Increase in media use in children by 8 hours, mostly computer and video games.
Cognitive Development and Achievement
Cognitive Impact of "Educational" Videos on Infants and Toddlers.
Infants learn very little watching educational DVD's.
Effect on TV/Video Viewing on Academic Achievement
Depends on age, program content, and whether there is an adult present to coview and comment on programming.
Effect of Screen Media Viewing on Children's Reading and Communication Skills
TV= general decline in reading levels and scores on standardized achievement tests.
Broadcast TV, Diversity, and Stereotyping
An oversimplified representation of members of a particular group. :star:
Advertising sells sexual desire associated with their product.
Advertising on the Screen
Children under 8 do not understand the persuasive intent of advertising and are more vulnerable to its appeals. Over 8 fall for subtle advertising.
Psychological Development and Behavior
Attitudes about Aggression and Motives to Behave Aggressively: Desensitizaion- the gradual reduction in response to a stimulus after repeated exposure, is used in behavior therapy to overcome fears. :star:
Attitudes and Motives: Attributions, rules, explanations learned from observed behavior on TV.
Emotions about Aggression and Violence: Children who watch more violence are more prone to aggressive behavior.
Children make factual judgement based on primarily based on genre, which in turn depends on formal production features.
Perception: Individual's perception of reality. Variation in perceptions based on individual personalities.
Physical Development and Health
Substance Use and Abuse:Subtle advertising
Obesity: heavy media consumption and obesity; ads for foods that are calorie rich.
Socioemotional Development and Relationships
If children have few experiences listening to others, responding to them, negotiating, and compromising, their socioemotional development will be negatively affected.
TV affects interpersonal relationships, especially family interactions and shared time.
"Establishing and maintaining relationships with others. "
Theories regarding screen media influence children
Displacement Theory: Displacement of important developmental activities such as play, hobbies, games, sleep, study, and especially conversations with family and friends.
Motivation Theory: impact of media depends on how media are used. and the individual abilities and characteristics of the user.
Cultivation Theory: media content affects viewers' beliefs about the world and consequently alters their behavior. The more time one is exposed to violent, the more likely that individual will engage in violent acts.
Social Cognitive Theory: media contributes to children's learning by enabling them to observe role models behave on screen. (Those with prestige).
Defining Mass Media
Transformers: new media creates new environments as well as new ways of looking at existing environments.
Spreaders: they extend our capacity as human beings to process info. and transform us (ex: enhance our ability to multitask).
Shapers: mass media affects us some way (ex: products).
Influences on Mass Media
Affects on culture
Rise of junior brands of adult brands.
Mass media aims content at the broadest spectrum of viewers in order to gain the attention of the largest number of consumers for the products advertised on their programs..
Result: media needs to produce "mass culture" geared to popular or majority tastes.
Legal license and restrictions on media because airways are considered "public".
Media portrays different family situations and life situations.
Availability of mass media is increasing with increase in technology.