National park establishment (Legislative categories of PA (:check:National…
National park establishment
Povide lasting conservation
Conserve life support system n ecological processes of NE.
Protected area definition
UNEP- a geographically defined area that is designated/regulated and managed to achieved specific conservation obj.
IUCN- an area of land/ sea especially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity n of natural n associated caltural resources n managed through legal/ other effective means.
Form of PA
2 int. convention n 1 int. program
designation of wetland of int. importance
UNESCO Man n Biosphere Program
designate unique area for a range
World Heritage Convention
designation of area of outstanding universal value
:<3:Preservation of sp. and genetic diversity
:<3:Maintenance of env. service
:<3:Protection of special natural n cultural feature
:<3:Tourism and recreation
:<3:Sustainable use of resources from natural ecosystems
:<3:Maintenance of cultural and traditional attributes.
Limited by states right over land ownership
retained by ownership
Federal PA in semenanjung:
NP, Wildlife reserve, Wildlife santuary, Marine park. Gazette by federal legislation
Sabah n Sarawak have own laws covering forestry, PA n wildlife
Legislative categories of PA
:check:National parks and state parks under the park laws
:check:Sanctuaries or reserves under the wildlife laws
:check:grouped according to the laws used for their establishment
:check:Protection forests under the forestry laws
:check:Marine parks and fisheries prohibited areas under the National Fisheries Act 1985
:check:Areas reserved for a public purpose under the land law
Conservation vs preservation
1 of main in-situ conservation strategy is preserving biodiversity within PA system
Ecosystem n habitat contain subjected to some degree of use,control,manipulation n protection
NP vs Wildlife santuary
all human act. are completely banned in area under NP, for WS some human act. like timber are allowed.
Grazing of livestock can be permitted inside a WS but not inside in NP
WS can be upgrade as a NP. but NP cannot be downgrade as a WS
Both are protected, ws control act- tourism, education
:pen:These result in great differences of purposes and values put on protected areas
:pen:The differing conservation objectives of protected areas in various countries relate to the different perceptions about what is desirable in the natural world
:pen:Governments who manage natural areas for conservation purposes use many different legal, policy, and administrative mechanisms
: :pen:The system has six different classes of protected areas
:pen:There is considerable variation between countries in the mechanisms used to create and maintain systems of protected areas.
-either PA/ partially PA
-Substantial variation can be seen between countri inc.Malaysia