Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. (NADP: Acts as an electron…
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration.
Thylakoids: Tiny compartments found inside of chloroplasts. Their role is to help absorb sunlight in order for photosynthesis to occur.
The stroma, a very dense fluid within the chloroplast, is part of the supporting matrix of a plant cell and is also where carbon dioxide is turned into sugar.
Photosynthesis: the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water.
To convert light energy of the Sun into sugars that can be used by cells. The entire process is called photosynthesis and it all depends on the little green chlorophyll molecules in each is called chloroplast.
Stages of Photosynthesis
1) Light-dependent reactions, which take place in the thylakoid membrane, use light energy to make ATP and NADPH.
2) Calvin Cycle: not directly dependent on light, it is indirectly dependent on light since the necessary energy carriers (ATP and NADPH) are products of light-dependent reactions.
Water's role in Photosynthesis is to serve as the source of hydrogen for the sugars.
Carbon dioxide diffuses through small holes in the underside of the leaf called stomata
Solar energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of two energy-transporting molecules, ATP and NADPH. When solar energy reaches plant cells and excites special chlorophyll molecules, they release a high-energy electron
NADP: Acts as an electron carrier during the light dependent stages
NADPH:along with ATP is used in the light independent phase to form carbohydrate.
Oxygen is the waste of Photosynthesis.
The basic reaction of photosynthesis is: CO2 + H2O + light energy ---> (CH2O)n + O2. Light energy entering the plant splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen: H2O + light energy ---> 1/2 O2 + 2H+ + 2 electrons
Photosystem 1: is the second photosystem in the photosynthetic light reactions. integral membrane protein complex that uses light energy to produce the high energy carriers ATP and NADPH
Photosystem 2: is the first protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis
Electron transport chain uses the energy to pump hydrogen ions across a membrane. The protons pass back through ATP synthase, driving the production of ATP.
ATP Synthase pump:
enzyme that creates
the energy storage molecule
ATP: is to provide the energy needed for carbohydrate synthesis in the Light -indepentdent reactions in the calvin cycle.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION:is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles that can be considered the power generators of the cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP is the chemical energy "currency" of the cell that powers the cell's metabolic activities.
Cellular respiration takes place in the cytoplasm of cells and inside the mitochondria. Mitochondria are often called the cell’s “power plant,” because the process of cellular respiration takes place inside them. This process produces energy within the cell
There are four steps of cellular respiration: 1) Glycolysis, 2) Transition Reaction, 3) Krebs Cycle 4) Electron Transport Chain.
The Krebs Cycle takes place within the matrix. The compartments are critical for the electron transport chain structure and function. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, with the products of glycolysis entering the mitochondria
Krebs or citric acid cycle, which is a series of reactions that takes in acetyl CoA and produces carbon dioxide, NADH, FADH2, and ATP or GTP.
The electron transport chain is the final stage of aerobic respiration leading to the forming of ATP in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
Water is the waste product of cellular respiration.
The process of using glucose to make energy is called cellular respiration
A glucose molecule is gradually broken down into carbon dioxide and water.
Carbon dioxide is given off as a waste product. This carbon dioxide can be used by photosynthesizing cells to form new carbohydrates.
Oxygen is the "terminal electron acceptor" within the electron transport chain.
ATP, or Adenosine Triphosphate, is the form of an energy that is released during cellular respiration.
The energy for ATP synthesis comes from organic molecules (such as carbohydrates), sunlight, or inorganic electron donors.
NADH contributes to oxidation in cell processes like glycolysis to help with the oxidation of glucose. The energy stored in this reduced co-enzyme NADH is supplied by the TCA cycle in the process of aerobic cellular respiration and powers the electron transport process in the membranes of mitochondria
The NAD+ picks up an electron from glucose, at which point it becomes NADH. Then NADH, along with another molecule flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2) will transport the electrons to the mitochondria, where the cell can harvest energy stored in the electrons.
FAD is the oxidized form of FADH2. FAD becomes reduced to FADH2 in the mitochondria matrix (Where the TCA cycle occurs). This cycle uses pyruvate, which is formed during the end of glycolysis.
FAD is reduced to FADH2 in order to shuttle its electrons to the electron transport chain.
FADH2 than becomes oxidized to FAD and this cycle occurs again. The purpose is to generate ATP
FADH2 and NADH are electron carriers that donate their electrons to specific protein complexes which help pump protons from the matrix to the intermembrane space. The flow of these protons (H+) down an ATP Synthetase (protein complex) generates ATP.
Glycolysis is the pathway that converts sugar into energy, or glucose (C6H12O6) into pyruvate (CH3COCOO), generating ATP during the conversion
To provide this energy your cells must break down the glucose in your food during a process called glycolysis and convert it into pyruvate, which is sometimes referred to as pyruvic acid. Pyruvate is the molecule that feeds the Krebs cycle in order to keep cellular respiration active