w7-The Management of Organizational Justice (How to Create Perceptions of…
w7-The Management of Organizational Justice
OJ has the potential to create powerful benefits for organizations and employees alike. These include greater trust and commitment, improved job performance, more helpful citizenship behav- iors, improved customer satisfaction, and diminished conflict
Merit pay is sometimes ineffective
downsizing often has pernicious long-term effects
employee: how they are treated
injus- tice is like a corrosive solvent that can dissolve bonds within the community
Prescription vs. Description
managerial scientists: more concerned with what people be- lieve to be just
=descriptive & subjective & personal
Why Employees Care About Justice
employees: receive desirable outcomes.
managers are confusing outcome favorability with outcome justice
employ- ees prefer justice because it allows them to predict and control the outcomes
rewarded for successfully completing a task they report being happy
individuals can accept an unfortunate outcome as long as the process is fair and they are treated with interpersonal dignity
if is ethically inappropriate, they are likely to take considerable risks in the hopes of extract- ing retribution
When these employees see a customer treating one of their coworkers unfairly, the observing worker is apt to experience stress symptoms.
:warning:ill will spread
3 components of justice
painful for employees, as distributive injustice is associated with stress symptoms
2.those moved to lower-status offices showed decrements.
disappeared when individu- als were returned to status-appropriate office spaces.
Recent advances in distributive justice
Aristotle’s famous dictum that all men wish to be treated like all other people (equality), like some other people (equity), and like no other person (need).
best: provide a basic minimum of benefit.
Allocating social-emotional rewards equally sig- nals that everyone in the organization matters and is worthy of respect.
when managers believed that their headquarters used a fair planning process, they were more supportive
If the process is perceived as just, employ- ees show greater loyalty and more willingness to behave in an organization’s best interests.
Working Together: The Three Components of Justice Interact
distributive and a procedural injustice will have fewer negative effects if interactional justice is high.
1.DistributiveJustice:Appropriatenessofoutcomes. ●Equity:Rewardingemployeesbasedontheircontributions. ●Equality:Providingeachemployeeroughlythesamecompensation. ●Need:Providingabenefitbasedonone’spersonalrequirements.
Procedural Justice: Appropriateness of the allocation process. ● Consistency: All employees are treated the same.
● Lack of Bias: No person or group is singled out for discrimination or ill- treatment.
● Accuracy: Decisions are based on accurate information.
● Representation of All Concerned: Appropriate stakeholders have input into
● Correction: There is an appeals process or other mechanism for fixing mistakes.
● Ethics: Norms of professional conduct are not violated.
Interactional Justice: Appropriateness of the treatment one receives from
● Interpersonal Justice: Treating an employee with dignity, courtesy, and respect.
● Informational Justice: Sharing relevant information with employees
The Impact of Organizational Justice
1.Justice Builds Trust and Commitment
2.Justice Improves Job Performance
3.Justice Fosters Employee Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Justice Builds Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty
Thoughts Before Moving On
How to Create Perceptions of Justice
Selection Procedures: Positive Job Candidates
When applicants feel unjustly treated they are more likely to consider litigation as a potential remedy
Appropriate questions and criteria are critical for procedural justice.
Conflict Management: You Don’t Have to Win
Layoffs: Softening Hardship
downsizing is among the worst affect to em, risky.
Many of these individuals considered legal action fol- lowing their downsizing, and almost a quarter of the victims went so far as to speak to an attorney.
workforce reductions also affect survivors.
Performance Appraisals: Keeping Score Fairly
most managers reported having provided performance reviews, while many of their subordinates reported never receiving one.
helpful to approach per- formance evaluations with an eye to their subjec- tivity
many PA focus on so- cial setting
:when em- ployees had a voice they were more satisfied, saw the process as more fair, and were more motivated to do better.
3 elements in review:
Judgment based on evidence
The result? The number of grievances filed skyrocketed at the firm with the new procedural safeguard, but stayed roughly constant at the other organization.
2.Building Justice Into Management Systems
screening tools that have both predictive validity and procedural justice.
modify existing screening tools to increase job applicants’ perceived procedural jus- tice.
Recall that in- teractional justice can attenuate the negative ef- fects of procedural injustice.
3.Reward Systems: Justly Balancing Multiple Goals
2 goals: motivate & maintain group cohesion
if em is paid low, they often remain loyal to their employer if the pay administration procedures are viewed as fair.
When wage dispersion was high, faculty reported less satisfaction and less collaboration with colleagues.
In addition to procedural justice, interactional justice can be helpful in administering pay fairly.
On the posi- tive side, justice can do more than forestall these unfortunate outcomes
negative effects of an unfortunate event are less severe if an organization is able to maintain pro- cedural and interactional justice
each task has the potential to designate some as “winners” and others as “losers.”
OJ: allows managers to make these tough decisions more smoothly