Sustainable- smart- resilient- low carbon- eco- knowledge cities; making…
Sustainable- smart- resilient- low carbon- eco- knowledge cities; making sense of a multitude of concepts promoting sustainable urbanisation (de jong et al. 2014)
Shanghai decleration- aspirations of establishing cities where people live in harmony with nature, society, and themselves. Respect for nature by promoting renewable energy, inclusive and balanced growth, social equity and economic efficiency. Improving the quality of life in urban environments
Plethora of new city categories- create better environmental, social and economic conditions to enhance cities attractiveness and competitiveness
Often the new city categories used interchangeably- assumes an overarching aim- urban development and regeneration in a balanced and mutually beneficial way.
Notion of sustainable development- single most important paradigm, notion of the triple bottom line
Ecological modernisation has also increasingly shaped urban policy and practice- mutually enhancing ecology and economy.
Also paradigm of regenerative development/sustainability- preserved environmental stocks and regenerates these from previous losses
The various city categories mentioned could be understood as implying major overlap
Eludicate the meaning of these categories by tracing conceptual roots, revealing underlying norms and conceptions and pinpointing where policy prescriptions converge and diverge
sustainable city, eco city, low carbon city, liveable city, green city, smart city, digital city, intelligent city, knowledge city and resilient city
Occurrence per category- Sustainable city the most frequently found, followed by smart city, digital city, eco city and green city.
Digital city and smart city has taken off since the early 2000s, low carbon city and resilient city strongly emerged after 2009
Co occurrences per category- sustainable city has direct connections to all other categories except digital city, information city. Eco city operates a similarly central position
Academic authores rarelt consider liveable city and information city concepts worthy of the status of keyword
The link between eco city to sustainable city and from sustainable city to smart city constitutes the main axis of the figure
Conclude that sustainable city serves as a broad conceptual or umbrella category- a central place in the relational fields of key categories
Genesis, evolution and theoretical underpinning of city categories
Two categories are relatively more frequent and yet more conceptually distinct to the sustainable city: smart city, eco city.
We have thus obtained a better perspective on the relative positions of each of these city categories within the broader academic discourses on sustainable development, ecological modernization and regenerative development.
we have examined (a) the historical genesis and evolution of the most important categories and (b) the theoretical interests driving them
Bruntland commission turned it into a policy term, main definition, concept grew popular in the 1990s, strongly intertwined with the concept of the triple bottom line. Place where a higher quality of life is realised in tandem with policies to reduce demand on resources.
sustainable city becomes a more self-sufficient economic, social and environmental system
Ecological sustainability is then seen as less in conflict with social and economic considerations- trend caught up in heading ecological modernisation- move from industrial to cleaner service based economy.
Green city- strong connection to the sustainable city and the eco city- integration generates five models- hydrologic city, productive city, bio climatic city, transit city and habitat city.
Understood as a city built according to the principles of living within the means of the environment , within the ecological carrying capacity of the city
No commonly agreed definition has emerged to date
Range of application: carbon-neutral, and renewable energy supply, waste and recycling , local urban agriculture, affordable housing
Over time, acquired a variety of conceptual meanings and interpretations, intensifying wider economic and social issues has lead to a softening of environmental standards
Categories high frequency over tine and central positioning reflects the concepts long ranging and broad-based treatment in the academic and policy debates
The low carbon city
direct response to the more recent climate change debate and the role of cities
focus on minimising carbon footprint and reducing or eliminating the use of non-renewable energy resources
Become a trend around the world, signally production and consumption less energy intensive and enhancing share of renewables
However the term doesnt comprise environmental and ecological issues other than energy, water, biodiversity and natural resoruces
Relatively new in origin, surpassed the sustainable city in frequency of academic use in 2013
Companies collaborate to produce better services to citizens with sophisticated ICT facilities
: (1) improving administrative and economic
efficiency and enabling the development of culture and society by utilizing networked infrastructures; (2) an underlying emphasis on business oriented urban development; (3) a strong focus on the goal of realizing the social inclusion of different kinds of urban residents in public services; (4) emphasizing the significant role of
high-tech and creative industries in long-term growth; (5) paying close attention to the function of social and relational capital in city development; and (6) taking social and environmental sustainability as an important aspect of smart city development
be contextualized and embedded in wider physical and social systems, thus allowing it to be at the service of
people, business and government
Lack of particular emphasis on environmental sustainability , can move to centre stage in urban development.
Resemblance with aspects of the smart city- information and knowledge-intensive production without high environmental impact
Based on economics of innovation
Integrated cities that physically and institutionally combine the fuctions of a science parks with civic and residential functions
Stresses enriched human capital, a vibrant and diverse socio-cultural environment, accessibility, tolerance and social equity
Does not centrally promote ecological sustainability or even regenerative development
Conceptually distinctive identity
The ability of systems to absorb changes and still persist
(1) reacting to ecological problems; (2) handling hazards and disasters; (3) coping with shocks in the development of urban and regional economies; and (4) promoting resilience through urban governance and institutions
Remains to be seen whether it is expanded as a concept as it is only connected with the sustainable city and no other categories
Do they all really relate to a better city, better life?
Selected city categories are not interchangeable
Sustainable city is the most frequently occuring category- comprehensive umbrella concept
Smart city on its way to becoming the leading driver of urban sustainability and regeneration initiatives
Increasingly fierce competition among cities for businesses and talented people, as well as growing dependency of their cash-stricken governments on private funds, have driven
cities' self-promotion and investment programmes in the direction of stronger emphasis on economic feasibility and engineering systems solutions to realize their ambitions for desirable and viable urban development
The ‘smart city’ in particular seems to
fit this picture of providing integrated building and technological fixes, and reflects the substantial capital needs involved in building new and/or maintaining existing urban infrastructure. But whether this type of smart growth can adequately cater for social equity is not certain; likewise, what environmental progress can be expected of large-scale development activities through technologically advanced, knowledge-intense buildings, infrastructure and services is not immediately obvious