Locations in the world facing water shortage
As freshwater is distributed unevenly across the world, the amount of freshwater available per capita can vary tremendously worldwide. Freshwater availability of a country is calculated by dividing the country's total water resources(cubic metres)by its total population. Water security, water vulnerability, water stress and water scarcity are terms used to describe different levels of freshwater availability.
When a country has adequate and sustainable freshwater for human consumption and use more than 2500 cubic metres per capita per year.
If fresh water availability is between 1701 and 2500 cubic metres
If fresh water availability is between 1001 and 1700 cubic metres
When fresh water availability is falls below 1000 cubic metres
Distribution of water on earth
Water is the most abundant substance on earth
The world's oceans are all interconnected in a single,enormous body of water. The water in the oceans is replenished by precipitation and rivers that flow into the oceans.
Groundwater is stored underground in the soil and underlying rocks. When rain falls to the ground, some of the water infiltrates the ground until it reaches solid rock. The water then fills up the empty spaces and cracks above that layer of rock. When all these spaces are entirely filled, the ground is filled with water. This water is known as groundwater.
Ice caps, glaciers, rivers and lakes
Almost 69 percent of the earth's freshwater is trapped in ice caps and glaciers. They are usually far from where people stay and are hence inaccessible.
An ice cap is a thick, continuous mass of ice which covers large ares of land.
A glacier is abody of ice that movesdown a slope due o gravity. Glaciers form when snow accumuklates and is compacted to form ice. Th esize of glaciers can range fromm afootball fielkd to a river 160 km long.
A river is a natural steam of freshwater flowing in a channel. The source of a river may be a lake, a spring or a melting glacier. As the river flows downstream, precipitation, groundwater and other smaller streams add to the flow. These smaller streams are known as tributaries. Together, a river and its tributaries make up a river system. The end of a river is its mouth. At the mouth, the river flows into another body of water such as a lake or the ocean.
A lake is a body of water surrounded by land.