Gender and Educational Achievement
Gender and Educational Achievement
Trends in Gender Achievement
Cohen (1998) - Girls outperform boys in early years. Girls have not always had the same educational opportunities as boys.
1990's Statistics show the gender balance in educational achievement has shifted
Girls did better than boys in reading and writing, no difference in maths 80%
2013 - Girls did better than boys at GCSE level, in every subject other than maths. Girls do better at A-level A-C. 2012 Boys achieving A* improving, so cant be exaggerated/ 2012- More females in Uni courses 55% female. male 45%
Holborn - Boys in education is improving, and the gender gap is being reduced
Gender Role socialisation
Peer group influence
Hannan - Girls spend leisure time differently to boys. Puts girls at an advantage, as subjects require good listening skills. Girls are happy to help eachother
Edward and David - At home parents allow boys to be nosier and more attention seeking, this translated into primary school as boys are more likely to break rules and are less bothered when they are told off
Edward and David - by Secondary schools boys had trouble concentrating, only able to deal with short-term tasks
Boys behavior is often shaped by their peer groups, there culture is typically macho. Frosh et al - Boys regard schoolwork as feminine and are involved in hyper-masculine behavior such as back-chatting
Boys are overconfident and are blinded by what is actually required for educational success
Kirby - suggests that boys play computer games more frequently than girls, this declines family time, this reduces boys language skills
Burns and Bracey - Girls at secondary school generally work harder and are more motivated than boys, Girls put more effort into their work and take more care
Girls have better language skills than boys because mothers talk to them more frequently & Girls are taught to conform by their parents which is behavior similar to that of the classroom.
Edward and David - suggest gender differentiation in primary socialization gives girls an advantage over boys, but there is still a patriarchy system within schools due to male dominance
By the age of 7 girls are more likely to pay attention than boys and have developed a compliant motivational style so will work independently and achieve higher grades.
Social Change and Patterns of Development
Effect on girls
Last 30 years have seen feminisation of the workforce, this has transformed attitudes of women. Service sector has expanded
Wilkinson's - GENDERQUAKE - changes in the attitudes and expectations about their futures, compared to their ancestors. Aspirations are no longer restricted to the family role. Girls have higher aspirations and aspire to better careers
Sue Sharpe - 1976 - Girls have a traditional ideas about womanhood, love marriage,husbands,children . 1994 - Priorities have changed to 'job,career and to support themselves'
Francis and Skeleton - Women choose their career as reflecting their identity. The growth in women's employment opportunities have increased incentives to achieve in education.
Feminist ideas filter via the media, into education then family life, partly responsible for increased opportunities
Changes in employment and attitudes caused by 1) long-term increase in divorce 2) increased age at first marriage 3)increase age of women at birth 4) the growth of lone parenthood = INDIVIDUALISATION
Effect on boys
More individualism have lowered expectations of boys, 21st century boys lack confidence and motivation
Boys previously socialized into being the bread-winner but this has changed due to : 1) decline in manufacturing industry = unemployment 2)new jobs in service sector are part-time and desk based 3) some families have a female bread winner
Traditional masculine roles are under threat as Wragg ( 1997) negativity about work has filtered down to primary school levels
Factors within education
Greater emphasis on equal opportunities in 1980's, more monitoring of teaching practices and resources
Stanworth (1990) - schools reinforce gender inequalities due to teacher expectations and labelling
Boys - When questioned or challenged by a teacher were met with respect whereas girls were seen as being too assertive and unladylike
Teachers gave more time and attention to boys as expected more of them
Epstein (1998) 'poor boys' are ignored at school and there masculinity is ignored. People argue schools should be more masculine as they have been feminised, and attention directed at boys
Rothermel (1999) home-educated children, boys are as successful as girls. This suggests something occurs as school
Sukhnanda (200) boys generally feel they receive less support and guidenace at school. Feel that teachers have higher expectations for boys. Schools are alien places
feminised school environment
Form of secondary education under the 1944 Butler Act, with the 11+ tests . Grammar schools, Secondary modern and Technical schools.