Elements of Speeches and Essays (Element (Author's Purpose: The…
Elements of Speeches and Essays
Author's Purpose: The author's main reason for writing
Central Idea: The author's main point
Point of View: The author's overall stance on the subject; reflects beliefs, experiences, and values.
Structure: The organizational pattern the author uses to develop and present his or her ideas.
Style: The author's distinct approach to writing. Stylistic elements include the author's syntax and diction.
Rhetorical Devices: Patterns of word choice, syntax, and meaning used to emphasize ideas, including parallelism, the use of similar grammatical structures to express related ideas.
Tone: The author's emotional attitude toward his or her subject and audience.
Persuasive/Argument Essay: Attempts to convince readers to accept the writer's point of view on an issue or to take a course of action
Expository Essay: Explains a topic by providing information about it or by exploring an idea related to it
Reflective Essay: Presents experiences that inspired the writer's thoughts or feelings about a topic
Narrative Essay: Tells the story of real events or experiences
Descriptive Essay: Provides specific details to create an impression of a person, an object, or an experience.
Talk: an informal speech delivered in a conversational style
Sermon: a prepared, often formal speech intended to teach or inspire
Lecture:a prepared, often formal speech that informs or instructs an audience
Presentation: a prepared speech about a topic, may include visual aids
Address: a formal, prepared speech that is usually delivered by someone of importance
Extemporaneous Speech: a speech delivered without preparation, usually in a conversational style
Facts: or statements that can be proved true
Statistics: or numerical data that presents important information on a subject
Descriptions: or details that tell what something looks like, sounds like, and so on
Examples:or specific cases that illustrate an idea
Reasons: or statements that justify or explain a belief
Expert Opinions: or statements made by people who have special knowledge of a topic
Sections: introduce central ideas
Paragraphs: develop and support those ideas
Sentences: present supporting details and connect one idea to another
Chronological Order: presents events in the order in which they happen
Spatial Order: presents details from left to right, bottom to top, near to far, and so on
List Organization: presents connected details consecutively or sorts them into categories
Comparison-and-Contrast Organization: groups ideas according to their similarities and differences
Cause-and-Effect Organization: shows how one event causes another
Problem-and-Solution Organization: identifies a problem, then presents ways to solve it