Environmental Studies AS - Conservation in the UK (Organisations involved…
Environmental Studies AS - Conservation in the UK
Organisations involved in conservation in the UK
Designated protected areas in the UK
Marine Nature Reserves (MNRs)
Special Protection Areas (SPAs)
Local Nature Reserves (LNRs)
Special Areas of Conservation (SACs)
National Nature Reserves (NNRs)
Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)
Species Recovery Programme (SRP)
The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs
Biodiversity Action Plans
Agri-environmental schemes - the Environmental Stewardship Scheme (ESS)
The Forestry Commission
Owns large forests which timber production used to be the only aim.
Wildlife conservation, education and recreation now important.
Natural England stated aims include:
Healthy natural environment.
Enjoyment of the natural environment.
Sustainable use of the natural environment.
Secure environmental future.
Natural England activities include:
Provide advice and information on wildlife conservation.
Provide grants for conservation management.
Designation of protected areas.
Voluntary conservation organisations
World Wide Fund for Nature
WWF campaigns include:
Global climate change.
Waste disposal and pollution.
Home energy conservation.
An international charity operating in over 90 countries.
Campaigns on a wide variety of environmental issues, raising public awareness, lobbying industry and governments, helping educational organisations and providing funding for environmental projects.
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
RSPB activities include:
Raising public awareness on environmental issues.
Lobbying industry and governments.
Research grans to fund other conservation organisations.
Joint activities with other conservation organisations.
An independent charity.
It's the UK member of Birdlife International.
Bird conservation is the focus of RSPB's activities but broader environmental issues are covered, including energy, pollution, transport and agriculture.
Main RSPB activity is the purchase and management of reserves to protect and enhance bird habitats.
RSPB manages/owns over 150 nature reserves.
Birds may be the main priority but the habitat management also benefits many other species.
Most reserves are open to the public, many with facilities such as visitor centres, observation hides and guided walks.
Other voluntary conservation organisations
Many other excellent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) involved in conservation and other environmental issues.
Friends of the Earth
Marine Conservation Society
Methods of habitat conservation in the UK
Traditional land uses that have produced valuable wildlife habitats
Hunting and fishing
Maintenance of cover
Coppicing and pollarding
Field boundary maintenance
Threatened habitats in the UK
Threats to Broadleaf woodland include:
Clearance for agriculture.
Lack of management.
Threats to Wetlands include:
Drainage for farmland.
Straightening of rivers.
Excessive recreation pressure.
Threats to The Broads include:
Traditional crafts + Secondary succession.
Global climate change and sea level rise.
Threats to Lowland heathland include:
Stopping the use of burning (management technique)
Threats to Hedgerows include:
Increase arable field size for easier machinery use.
Increase farmable area and food harvests.
Neglect by ceasing traditional management.
Threats to Hay meadows include:
Change in grassland management to silage cutting.
Threats to Chalk grassland include:
Intensive farming with ploughing and fertiliser use to substitute for fertile soil.
'Improved' grassland (Ground sprayed with pesticides, ploughed then re-seeded with more productive grass varieties).
Urban expansion and road building.
Abandonment of grazing allowing secondary succession.
Threats to Upland moorland include:
Afforestation with conifers.
Abandonment of grazing or grouse shooting, allowing secondary succession.
Increased visitor pressure (result of the Countryside and Rights of Way Act (2000)).
Coasts and estuaries
Threats to Coasts and estuaries include:
Pollution from rivers drain into estuaries.
Pollution from industrial developments.