"From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems"…
"From sectoral systems of innovation to socio-technical systems" by Frank W. Geels
Definition of a Sectoral system of innovation is
: (both definitions are important to include)
: a system (group) of firms active in developing and making a sector's products and in generating and utilising a sector's technologies; such a system of firms is related in two different ways:
1.through processes of interaction and cooperation in artefact-technology development
through processes of competition and selection in innovative and market activities
The definition for
is: ... networks of agents interacting in a specific technology area under a particular institutional infrastructure to generate, diffuse and utilise technology. Technological systems are defined in terms of knowledge or competence flows rather than flows of ordinary good and services. The consist of dynamic knowledge competence networks.
focuses not only on the understanding og the creation, but also its diffusion and utilisation
the focus is on the social system
the basic elements of a sectoral system
knowledge and learning processes
mechanisms of interactions
processes of competition and selection
how do new sectoral systems emerge, and what is the link with the previous sectoral system?
from innovation systems to socio-technical systems
socio-technical systems do not only focuses on the user side, but also the socio-technical system behind (production, diffusion and technology use)
se figur 1 s 4
the inter-organisational community or field can also be looked into. Here focus is on the social infrastructure which is necessary to develop, commercialise and use innovations.
Se figur 2 på s5
here different groups exist. Within these groups there is coordination within groups.
"interpenetration" = a word to characterise groups which overlap in some manner without loosing their autonomy (the case here)
it is not possible to define boundaries of social networks
within these systems the technology used or developed upon can become a black box (and often does) s.6
an analytic distinction between socio-technical systems, actors and institutions/rules, which guide actors
6 kinds of interactions between these 3 dimensions.
Se s6-7 + figur 4
disse 3 dimensioner vil i praksis altid være interrelated.
activities through institutions and rules
different kinds of coordination
(cognitive, normative & regulative rules)
= formal rules, contains behaviour and regulate interactions (e.g. government regulations)
= confer values, norms, role expectations, duties, rights, & responsibilities
= rules that constitute the nature of reality and the frames through which meaning or sense is made
different rules exists for different social groups. Called
difficult to change 1 rule whiteout altering others
alignment between rules gives a regime stability and "strength" to coordinate activities
se table 2 på s10
, hvor sammenhængen mellem roller og regler er vist
Meta-coordination through socio-technical regimes
rules are also linked between regimes
se figur 5 s.9
- de hænger sammen men er også selvstændige regimer