Elements of Essays and Speeches (Types of support ((continued) (Rhetorical…
Elements of Essays and Speeches
An essay is a short nonfiction that conveys a central idea/key concept about a specific topic
A speech is a nonfiction work, meant to be delivered to an audience that contains a central idea and expresses the reader's POV
Narrative writing is meant to entertain the reader
Argumenative writing is meant to persuade an audience, or reader
Expository writing is meant to inform or explain
Elements of Essays and Speeches
Author's Purpose - Main reason of writing
Central Idea - The author's main, or central, point
PoV - Stance on the subject that reflects the author's beliefs, experiences, and values
Structure - Organizational pattern the author uses to develop and present their ideas
Style - The author's distinct approach to writing, using stylistic elements that include syntax (sentence structure, length and variety) and diction (word choice).
Rhetorical Devices - Patters of word choice, syntax, and meaning used to emphasize ideas, including parallelism, the use of similar grammatical structures to express related ideas.
Tone - The author's emotional attitude toward his or her subject and audience.
Types of Essays
Expository essay - explains a topic by providing information about it, or exploring an idea related to it.
Persuasive/augmentative essay- attempts to convince readers to accept the writer's PoV on an issue or take a particular course of action.
reflective essay - presents experience that inspired the writer's thoughts or feelings about a topic.
narrative essay - tells the story of real events or experiences
descriptive essay - provides specific details to create an impression of a person, an object, or an experience
Types of Speech
Address - formal, prepared speech that is delivered by someone of importance, delivered to mostly parents, faculty, staff, or students.
Lecture - prepared, often formal, speech that informs or instructs an audience, delivered mostly by a scientist to doctors/scientists.
Talk - An informal speech delivered in a conversational style, mostly used to report on a fundraiser delivered by a student to other members of a club/organization
Sermon - a prepared, often formal speech meant to teach or inspire, mostly used to preach religion, delivered by a pastor
Presentation - prepared speech about a topic, with visual aids, mostly used to teach an event, or project, from a student, to a class
Extemporaneous Speech - Speech delivered without preparation, in a conversational style, delivered mostly at a wedding, delivered by a wedding guest to a bride and groom
Types of support
Facts - statements that are proven true
Statistics - numerical data that presents important information on a subject
Descriptions - details that tell what something looks, and sounds like
Examples - specific cases that illustrates an idea
Reasons - or statements that justify or explain a belief
Expert opinions - statements made by people who have special knowledge of a topic
Sections - introduced central ideas
Paragraphs - develop or support ideas, with sentences used to give supporting, and connecting, details
Repetition - is a reuse of a key word, phrase, or idea
Parallel structure - is the similar use of grammatical structure
Restatement - In the expression of the same idea in different words
Rhetorical questions - inquiries that have obvious answers
Analogies - are comparisons that show similarities between things that are otherwise not alike