The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching (Most famous authors:,…
The Oral Approach and Situational Language Teaching
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one of the most successful ESL courses: Streamline English
British linguists 1930 - 1960
:!: vocabulary was set as a key criteria and the most important thing to learn while studying a foreign language
grammar rules were to be studied through oral approach
1965 "Situational English" by Alexander and others setting the following
Language teaching begins with the spoken language. Material is taught orally before it is presented in written form
The target language is the language of the classroom. .
New language points are introduced and practiced situationally.
Vocabulary selection procedures are followed to ensure t at an essential general service vocabulary is covered.
Items of grammar are graded following the principle that simple forms should be taught before complex ones.
Reading and writing are introduced once a sufficient lexial and grammatical basis is established.
"Our principal classroom activity in the teaching of English structure will be the oral practice of structures. This oral practice of controlled sentence patterns should be given in situations designed to give the greatest amount of practice in English speech to the pupil. Pittman
French saw language learning as habit formation:
The fundamental is correct speech habits.... The pupils should be able to put the words, without hesitation and almost without thought, into sentence patterns which are correct. Such speech habits can be cultivated by blind imitative drill.
Before our pupils read new structures and new vocabulary, we shall teach orally both the new structures and the new vocabulary. Pitman. 1963
Only when the teacher is reasonably certain that learners can speak fairly correctly within the limits of their knowledge of sentence structure and vocabulary may he allow them free choice in sentence patterns and vocabulary. Pittman 1963
The form of new words and sentence patterns is demonstrated with examples and not through grammatical explanation or description. The meaning of new words and sentence patterns is not conveyed through translation. It is made clear visually (with objects, pictures, action and mime
teacher / student role
in the process
In the initial stages of learning, the learner is required simply to listen and repeat what the teacher says and to respond to questions and com- mands. The learner has no control over the content of learning and is often regarded as likely to succumb to undesirable behaviors unless skillfully manipulated by the teacher.
The teacher's function is threefold. In the presentation stage of the lesson, the teacher serves as a model, setting up situation, in which the need for the target structure is created and then modeling the new structure for students to repeat. Then the teacher "becomes more like the skillful conductor of an orchestra, drawing the music out of the performers.
Most famous authors:
Hartley and Viney
L. G. Alexander
Harold Palmer and A. S. Hornby
Gatenby and Wakefield
French (1948-50), Gurrey (19551, Frisby (1957), and Billows (1961)