HIST2300 02/13/2017 (1676 - two Rebellions and one war European colonial…
1676 - two Rebellions and one war European colonial development
New Spain (sante Fe, NM) : Pueblo Rebellion problems start
Revolt against slavery and suppression of Native Religion
Virginia : Bacon's Rebellion (class-based Rebellion)
70 years of colonization... The "planter class"
Wealthy immigrants ith large grants, early migrants who built tobacco fortunes
Have the port and waterways controlled
Have the House of Burgess controlled
Flat, well watered land for monoculture crops
The "other white population"
Former indentured servants given small free-hold land grants
"up land" from the coast -- frontier
Need to be cleared, some in foothills not suitable for large fields
On the frontier with indians
Were their claims true? yes.
Consequences of the Rebellion
Governor Berkely recalle, new Royal Governor sent by the king
Political participation in the colony opened
to include small landowners
Planter class determines indentured servants and free white labor "too much trouble" --
accelerates switch to African-born slaves in Virginia colony
New England: King Phillip's War (race-based war)
Total war of exterminiation
Puritans(and other new englanders) vs .. The regional indian tribles
Became last desperate attempt to drive out English
"king Philip" - nickname given by whites as an insult to leader of confederation of indian groups [born: "metacom" used "philip"]
Event and context:
The murder of John sassamon --> a "praying indian"
3 wampanoag men(randomly) arrested, tried, and executed
Broader context or reason: rapid growth and expansion of English settlements
Argument made: "Necessary to rid region of Indians for safety and security"
Sassamon and Philip as "praying indians"
Both were educated and converted to Christianity
To english: symbols of "civilization" through conversion
To indians: symbols of the :treachery" of literacy and religion on survival of culture
Praying indians -- the term itself sets them apart from other Christians despite conversion
English never fully trust or include converted indians - race always paramount
1620 -1675: 20=30k English plus their descendants. Overwhelming the region and expanding out of Massachusetts bay colony and Plymouth
" The most deadly war in American history"
New England Indian tribes: nearly extinguished
English colonists: 10 % of total population killed
More than 50% of english towns/ villages destroyed
Large family migrations to a temperate climate: natural population increase
Small family farms - multiply and spread with each generation
August 1676: Philip shot and killed in Rhode Island
Beheaded, quartered as "a traitor to the colonies" (?????)
Head was displayed on a post in Plymouth for at least 20 years.
During that summer the last battles were fought and the Indians were defeated.
Three European colonial settlements, three armed conflicts
All 1676: what is the connection between all or any of them?
There is no connection between these conflicts
The "poor" settlers' complaint
Price of tobacco falling rapidly-- less chance to work for a "fortune"
Quality of land granted to former servants/immigrant whites
Desire to "police" indians AND to extend their wn farms
Taxes believed to be unfair
Petition House of Burgesses and Royal Gov. Berkley for "relief"
Issue: Treaties with the Indian Groups
Issue : disregard of frontier settlers based on socio-political grounds
Berkeley promises 21 years of tax relief to anyone "defending" the colony(his side)
Nathaniel Bacon: a member of the "gentry" takes up the cause
Leads a march of settlers from the frontier to Jamestown - burns it down
Settlers put the capitol under siege.. Bacon dies of dysentery, settlers retreat