Cycle 4 Cooking With Chemistry (Chemical Bonding (Hydroxide ion- A…
Cycle 4 Cooking With Chemistry
Parts of the Digestive System
Mouth- Both Mechanical and Chemical. It is Mechanical because it chews to break down food, and it is Chemical because the saliva helps to break down carbohydrate starch into smaller molecules.
Small Intestine- Both Mechanical and Chemical. It is Mechanical because it contracts and moves to push the broken down foods through it. I is chemical because digestive fluids in it complete the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Stomach- Both Chemical and Mechanical. It is mechanical because it moves to break down foods that aren't necessarily proteins. It's chemical because cells in it release hydrochloric acid which helps to break down proteins.
Mechanical Digestion- A physical process in which large pieces of food are torn and ground into smaller pieces
Chemical Digestion- Breaks down carbohydrates and proteins into smaller molecules
Classes of Nutrients Found in Food
Meat, Fish, Eggs and Alternatives
Milk, cheese, and yogurt
Fats/high sugar foods/drinks
Bread, cereal, tubers and roots
Food at the top of the food pyramid should be eaten in small quantities; food t bottom should be tiny
Fat Soluble Vitamins- Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Vitamin E
Trace Elements- Chromium, Cobalt, Zine, Selenium, Iodine, Fluoride, Manganese, Silicon, Boron, Copper
Essential Minerals- Calcium, Sulphur, Iron, Potassium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Magnesium
Water Soluble Vitamins- Vitamin B6, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B11, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Pantothenic Acid,
Undernutrition- Growth Failure, Micronutrient MalnutritiIron
Common diseases caused by deficiency in a Type 1 nutrients
Type 2 nutrients deficiency
Iron deficiency is the illness that causes the most deaths in children around the world. 45% of deaths are caused by malnutrition.
Convection- When heat is transferred by being spread in all directions in a liquid or a gas
Radiation- When heat is transferred by waves, like rays from the sun
Conduction- When heat is transferred by touch
Exothermic reactions- Releases energy by light or heat
Endothermic reactions- Absorbs energy from its surroundings
Periodic Table of Elements
Noble Gases- Xenon, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Oganesson, Helium, Radon
Halogens- fluorine, Chlorine, Borine, Iodine, Astatine
Alkaline Earth metals- Beryllium, magnesium, Calcium, Strontium, Barium, Radium
Transition Metals- Groups 3-12 on the periodic table
Alkali Metals- Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
Non-metals- All of the elements that are not metals
Metalliods- Antimony, Silicon, Germanium, Arsenic, Tellurium, Boron, Polonium, Astatine, Carbon, Selenium, Aluminum
Forms of matter
Matter- The amount of stuff in an object
Mass- The amount of matter in an object
Density- The degree of compactness of a substance
Weight- The force of gravity on an object
Volume- The amount of space that a substance or object occupies
Temperature- The degree or intensity of heat present in a substance or an object
Charles's Law- When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume will be directly related.
Boyle's Law- Gas pressure and volume are related when temperature is kept constant.
Different forms of matter
Liquids- A substance that flows freely but is of constant volume, having a consistency like that of water or oil
Boiling Point, Evaporation, Vaporization- Liquid to a gas
Freezing Point- Liquid to a solid
Particles are free to move in liquids, so they have no definite shape, but they have a definite volume.
Gases- An air like fluid substance which expands freely to fill any space available
Condensation- Gas to a liquid
Pressure- Physical force exerted on or against an object by something in contact with it
Deposition- Gas to a solid
Particles in gases move in all directions and are not limited in space. As they move, they spread apart, filling all the space available, so a gas has neither a definite shape or volume.
Solids- A substance or object that is solid rather than liquid or fluid
Melting Point- Solid to a liquid
Amorphous Solid- Any noncrystalline solid in which the atoms and molecules are not organized in a definite lattice pattern. Such solids include glass, plastic, and gel.
Sublimation- Solid to a gas
Crystalline Solid- a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Particles in a solid are closely packed together so that they have a definite shape and volume.
Chemical Change- When something changes into a completely new substance
Physical Change- When something changes shape or state, but not something new
Acids and Bases
Neutralization- A reaction of an acid with a base, yielding a solution that is not as acidic or basic as the starting solutions were.
Indicator- A compound that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base.
Fatty Acids- An organic compound that is a monomer of a fat or oil.
Amino Acids- One of the 20 kinds of organic compounds that are the monomers of proteins.
Carbohydrate- An energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Lipids- An energy-rich compound made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
Cellulose- A complex carbohydrate found in plant structures.
Cholesterol- A waxy lipid in animal cells
Corrosive- The way in which acids react with some metals so as to eat away the metal.
Simple Carbohydrates- Sugars
Glucose- A simple carbohydrate; the monomer of many complex carbohydrates.
Starch- A complex carbohydrate in which plants store energy.
DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid, one type of nucleic acid.
Protein- An organic compound that is a polymer of Amino Acids.
Nucleic Acids- A very large organic compound made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus;
Salt- An ionic compound made from the neutralization of an acid with a base.
Base- A substance that tastes bitter, feels slippery, and turns red litmus paper blue.
Acid- A substance that tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates and turns blue litmus paper red.
Solution- A well-mixed mixture containing a solvent and at least one solute that has the same properties throughout.
Saturated Solution- A mixture that contains as much dissolved solute as is possible at a given temperature.
Supersaturated Solution- A mixture that has more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at a given temperature.
Unsaturated Solution- A mixture that contains less dissolved solute than is possible at a given temperature.
Concentrated Solution- A mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in it.
Dilute Solution- A mixture that has only a little solute dissolved in it.
Solvent- The part of a solution that is present in the largest amount and dissolves a solute.
Solute- The part of a solution present in a lesser amount and dissolved by the solvent.
Mixtures- A substance made by mixing other substances together.
Suspension- A mixture in which particle can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration.
Colloid- A mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle out.
Heterogenous Mixture- A mixture in which you can see all of the different parts
Homogenous Mixture- A mixture in which you cannot see the different parts
Solubility- A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent ar a given temperature.
pH Scale- A range of values used to express the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution.
Hydroxide ion- A negatively charged ion made of oxygen and hydrogen.
Hydrogen ion- A positively charged ion formed of a hydrogen atom that has lost its electron.
Valence Electrons- Are electrons that have the highest energy level and are held most loosely.
Covalent Bonds- When atoms share one or more electrons to form a bond. Each atom is left with a complete outer shell. A covalent bond forms between two non-metals.
Ionic Bonds- Formed by an attraction between positive and negative ions. There is no charge on bonded atoms.
-Hard brittle crystals
-High melting point
-When dissolved in water conducts electricity
Metallic Bonds- Positively charged atoms floating in a "sea" of electrons. There is a charge on bonded atoms.
Bonding Basics- And atom that gains one or more electrons will have a negative charge. An atom that loses one or more electrons will have a positive charge. An atom that gains or loses one or more electrons is called an ion. A positive ion is called a cat ion, and a negative ion is called an an ion.
Ion- Atom that gains or loses one or more electrons.
(Balanced) 2Mg + O(2) ---> 2MgO
Formula- (Must be balanced) 2Na + MgF(2) ---> 2NaF + Mg